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University Degree: Environmental Sciences

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
  1. Water Conservation Projects in agriculture in China

    Crops at risk from declining water resources are rice, wheat, corn and cotton (Lohmar et al, 2003). Traditional sustainable farming techniques - Rain-fed agriculture These practices of agriculture make use of the availability of rain, reducing the need for irrigation and piped water, and the ability of the soil to retain the moisture. Farmers which make use of these practices benefit from a clean and free source of water for their crops but also put themselves at the mercy of the elements.

    • Word count: 4313
  2. The use of GMOs: A Critique, from the EFSA

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) intends to keep all of our food safe for consumption. And to let our stakeholders make an informed decision about what they eat. The EFSA is a risk assessor and risk communicator within the twenty five EU member states, they provide sound independent scientific advice on all issues concerning food safety. The public is always at the heart of these decisions, and their health and welfare is at the utmost importance including that of animal and plant welfare and the environment. The EFSAs remit includes the use of directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of GMO's whether it be onto the market, experimental release or anything else and regulation (EC)

    • Word count: 4404
  3. Implementation of national adaptation programs of action in order to provide immediate and urgent support to start adapting to current and projected adverse effects of climate change in Bangladesh.

    The country is a land of water, with its 230 rivers extending to a total length of 24,140 kms. Flood (i.e., flash, monsoon, rain and coastal floods) affects 80% of the land area. 2. Objectives of the project: The objective of the project is to implement national adaptation programs of action (NAPAs), including meeting the agreed full cost of preparation. The NAPAs will communicate priority activities relating to the adverse effects of climate change. The rationale for developing NAPAs rests on immediate and urgent support to start adapting to current and projected adverse effects of climate change. The purpose of the proposed NAPA formulation project for Bangladesh is the development of a countrywide program that encompasses the immediate and urgent adaptation activities that address the current and anticipated adverse effects of climate change, including extreme events.

    • Word count: 7091
  4. The History of Global Warming and What it means for the Future

    Approximately 15,000 years ago the earth had warmed sufficiently to halt the advance of glaciers and sea levels worldwide began to rise (par. 2). By 8,000 years ago, the land bridge across the Bearing Strait was under water, cutting off the migration of men and animals to North America (par. 2). Since the end of the Ice Age, Earth's temperature has risen approximately sixteen degrees Fahrenheit, and as a result, sea levels have raised a total of 300 feet (par.5). The discovery of global warming by mankind was made in 1896, when a Swedish scientist published a new idea (par.

    • Word count: 3030
  5. The Kyoto Protocol and the United States

    One of the attempts to combat the danger of increasing global warming was made at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, where more than 160 countries (including the United States) ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The primary objective of the Convention was the " stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. "2 All Parties, that ratified the Convention, were committed to develop and publish a national database of the "anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases" and

    • Word count: 3244
  6. How should the radioactive waste from nuclear power plants be disposed of? Why has the nuclear industry failed to find an acceptable solution to the problem of nuclear waster disposal?

    The bundles are then submerged in water which acts as a coolant inside a pressure vessel. Left to its own devices, the uranium would eventually overheat and melt. To prevent this, control rods made of a material that absorbs neutrons are inserted into the bundle using a mechanism that can raise or lower the control rods. Raising and lowering the control rods allow operators to control the rate of the nuclear reaction. When an operator wants the uranium core to produce more heat, the rods are raised out of the uranium bundle.

    • Word count: 9270
  7. The Home Efficiency Audit.

    In environmental terms, water is the "life-support system" for the planet. Without a steady supply of clean, fresh water, all life would cease to exist. Although its great that we have an exceedingly large amount of fresh water in Canada, the perception we don't have to worry about it has led to misuse and abuse of the resource. Did you know... * In the City of Toronto, the average residential water use is about 248 litres per person per day? With every litre of water pumped weighing 1 kilogram, that's a tonne of water needed for a family of four each day.

    • Word count: 4884
  8. Global warming and the basic mechanisms of climate change.

    With negotiations completed, the obligations agreed upon were initialised on the 10th December 1997. In contrast to the weak target embedded in the FCCC which required the parties to 'aim' to return their carbon dioxide emission levels to 1990 levels by 200010, the Kyoto Protocol was the first legally binding treaty aimed at cutting greenhouse gases and has been acknowledged as being the most far-reaching piece of international law to be issued in many decades. The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding instrument, of the FCCC, which set legally binding limits for emissions of greenhouse gases11, for all those who ratified it.

    • Word count: 3761
  9. Assessment of Indoor Environment.

    constant/variable. Acoustical Standardisation Internationally is the responsibility of the International Standards Organisation. In modern buildings about 30 types of noise generating equipment has been identified, producing levels of 45-60DbA. It can be higher in cases where very low sound dampening materials have been used in the structure. Indoor Air Quality Air is influenced by quality of indoor air pollutants and quality of outdoor air coming in. This can be screened, filtered or washed. Some volatile and particulate pollutants are emitted form the occupants themselves, others may originate from tobacco, combustion products from cooking, heating, lighting gaseous and particulate compounds

    • Word count: 4463
  10. "Understanding the Savanna".

    There are five factors that together determine what form of savanna is successful at any particular location. These are climate, edaphic, hydrological and geomorphologic factors, fire and grazing (Bourliere and Hadley 1992). Savanna is a dynamic system found in every tropical climatic area of the globe (Collinson 1988), located mainly between the latitudes of 5 degrees and 15 degrees north and south of the equator (Park 2001). Nix (1992) argues savanna can be found as far as 30 degrees north and south of the equator. The vegetation zone can be found in the interior of continents, sandwiched midway between the open desert steppes and the humid equatorial zones, it covers approximately 11.6 % of the earths land surface (Briggs et al 1997).

    • Word count: 3358
  11. A general increase of natural hazard impact?

    A general increase of natural hazard impact? From a physical viewpoint, global climate change introduces new physical patterns such as increased erosion because of deforestation... Then, men have to cope with this modified environment. Global warning brings about more and more flooding along coasts and around islands since the sea level rises (Bangladesh, Pays Bas, Maldives). Then, human beings have the impression that catastrophes are increasing. From October 2000 to April 2001, a large part of British Isles was affected by the most widespread flooding in over 50 years.

    • Word count: 3243
  12. Climate change and its impacts.

    Thus, a higher concentration means a warmer climate. ? Carbon Dioxide - Of all the 'anthropogenic'6 greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide has by far the greatest impact on the global heat budget (heat budget = amount of heat absorbed - the amount radiated back into space). Contributing to carbon dioxide's greenhouse potency is its persistence: as much as 40 percent of it tends to remain in the atmosphere for centuries. The accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide is promoted not only by combustion but also by tropical deforestation. ? Aerosols - They are not categorized as gases, but they are minute solid particles, sometimes covered by a liquid film, finely dispersed in the atmosphere.

    • Word count: 4735
  13. What contribution can geographers make to moderate the impact of natural hazards?

    'From a strict cost assessment, one might argue that society should let nature take its course, and put its resources into minimising medical risks and everyday accidents.' (Lundgren, 1988: 761) This Marxist perspective on hazard management is, in my opinion, an important one to consider, as it can interact with already-existing development programmes. That is not to diminish the direct impact of the hazard itself, however. For the area which is hit, the effects (both economically and in human terms)

    • Word count: 3809

"Physical science stands as one of the great achievements of the human spirit."

-Arthur David Ritchie

From the sighting of the Higgs boson to the development of clean energy, physical science research consistently alters the way we see the universe, and brings us life-changing technologies. If you're a science person who wants to learn about the universe and its properties-skimming over details like the organisms that live on earth-then a university degree in one of the physical sciences could be a great choice for you.

Strong written communication skills are important for any student of science, so be prepared to roll up the sleeves of your lab coat, and write some reports and essays. If you need a push in the right direction, browse Marked by Teachers' collection of physical science essays. The teacher annotations will show you what should be included in a good piece of science writing, and before long, you'll be writing and editing your own work with confidence.

Students of the physical sciences often take a higher degree in their field, or in a related subject like one of the biological sciences.Careers paths include business, education and research within academia and industry.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Evaluate the arguments for and against the use of GM crops in developing countries. Which do you support and why?

    "In conclusion, it would be impossible to say that there are clear-cut answers to this question as there are both advantages and disadvantages of genetically modifying crops in developing countries. For example, although GM crops could be easier to grow in the infertile soils of Africa and Asia, thus providing more food, there is no guarantee that these crops won't cause serious damage to people's health and to the environment. Scientists cannot yet say whether or not GM crops are safe, simply because they don't know. It therefore seems clear that if people's health is at risk, that should be the most important factor, showing that GM crops are more of a disadvantage than an advantage. However, if it can be proven that Genetically modifying crops is safe to people and to the environment, this opinion would probably be reversed. 1 www.maf.govt.nz 2 www.maf.govt.nz 3 www.agresearch.co.nz"

  • Discuss the similarities and differences between human and physical geography

    "In conclusion human geography focuses on all that is human and physical geography concentrates on the physical processes of the environment. Both elements are interrelated and the focus of their study has changed over time, both areas of geography have made an effort to move away from out dated simplistic theories and both areas have an interest in current affairs. It can be said that although both areas come under the heading of "geography" recently the two disciplines have moved away from each other and have established their knowledge in separate fields of expertise, this can be seen by the fact that human geography articles are published in journals of social science and physical geography articles are published in natural science journals. Space is the key to both sides of geography as both areas are concerned with how communities or environments and their distribution change dependant on their location. Despite the fact that there are many linkages between the two sides of geography, the fact that they are diverging suggests that there are rarely similarities within the two disciplines. That is not to say that this was always the case as geography began as one subject which was concerned with the mapping and cataloguing of regions in order to describe parts of the earth."

  • Discuss a range of geomorphological techniques we can use to determine the rate and magnitude of slope movement.

    "In conclusion, slope movement and magnitude of this movement can be measured and determined in many different ways. Techniques involving technology are the most astute in comparing and contrasting slope movement and the magnitude of this movement. However, the physical measuring of the slope movement highlights and determines ultimately the statue of the slope movement."

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