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University Degree: Environmental Sciences

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  1. Environmental issues and the field of international relations

    Therefore they paid unprecedented attention to the environmental protection and control industry. Meanwhile, they have recognized that it is important to "develop a new, more sustainable model of development" (Babiker et al. 2000:525). Some progress has been made in that direction, such as Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding international agreement to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions causing climate change, which was initially negotiated during the meeting held in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 (Boyd and Maria 2002; Larkin 2004).

    • Word count: 2559
  2. Kyoto Protocol.

    News has been said that the global climate has been warming for the past number of years. The gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect are called "greenhouse gases and include water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and ozone. Of these, the most prevalent human-produced gas is carbon dioxide, whose source is primarily the burning of fossil fuels" (Richard C. Rhodes) such as from vehicles and factories. Air-condition and refrigerator is widely used nowadays as this produce CFCs that will harm the world's ozone.

    • Word count: 690
  3. Communication Climate.

    others * the overall working environment * the way we react to the work environment * how satisfying it is to communicate with others in the organisation. * perceptions of what is important in the organisation (services, creativity or safety) While it mostly affects internal issues, many external audiences are influenced. This is simply a natural flow on. A good communication climate has been shown to enhance a business or organisation on many fronts Where does it come from? Just as the rain pours from above, so does the communication climate.

    • Word count: 793
  4. The Ozone Layer: The World's Greatest Sunblock

    In 1985, a progressive loss of ozone during the southern hemisphere spring was the first real harming sign that there was a serious problem. Satellite data showed that the affected area was not just limited to over the observations stations, but over most of the Antarctica region. This area of 50-75% depletion of total ozone has been labeled as the ozone hole (Gleason). Newton (1995) author of The Ozone Dilemma, describes the two primary reasons why the ozone layer is so important.

    • Word count: 1287
  5. Environmental change.

    The earth now, radiates back to atmosphere heat which is engaged by the greenhouse. The result is to keep the earth surface warm in order to ensure life. The heat that is going out of the planet is mainly to avoid the overheating of the planet. As we can see in the picture 1, in the appendix page 6, the climate change is obvious. This picture is taken by a research team by Greenpeace of the Patagonian glaciers and shows us the climate change has caused the ice to melt this century when comparing to photos of the same glaciers taken in 1928.

    • Word count: 1358
  6. The Mesozoic era.

    At the beginning of the Mesozoic age, all continents were joined, Australia at the base of the large super continent Pangea. For 160 million years Pangea was stabilised as one, until it during the Jurassic period it began to detach into two separate continents Laurasia and Gondwanaland, Australia being at the base of Gondwanaland on top of the present day Antarctica. During the Cretaceous period the fragmentation of Pangea continued with Laurasia completely separating entirely from Gondwanaland and Australia beginning to make its break from Antarctica and India (Henry Gee & Luis Key 2003 pg 22)

    • Word count: 1202
  7. With reference to one named disease examine the role of the physical environment in its development and spread.

    Looking at figure 1 and figure 2 it is possible to see that leprosy seems to be prominent in those countries with a hot, dry climate in the low latitudes. This implies that the physical environment does have a big effect upon the spread of the disease. Africa, South - East Asia and South America have had the highest leprosy rates for fifteen years. Although the leprosy rate has decreased since 1985, these three continents contain 729,861 of 752,417 registered leprosy cases.

    • Word count: 1927
  8. Describe and explain the atmospheric processes responsible for the tropical monsoon climate and assess the extent to which human activity is influenced by this climate.

    The combined effect of these three mechanisms produces the monsoon's characteristic reversals of high winds and precipitation. One of the most important variable is the timing of the beginning of the wet season in the Tropical Monsoon Climate. This onset date propagates across the Indian subcontinent from the Bay of Bengal towards the interior bringing the intense rains. The reverse process, the monsoon retreat, marks the end of the wet season, and travels from the interior out towards the Bay of Bengal. Monsoons are caused by land-sea temperature differences due to heating by the sun's radiation. The winter monsoon lasts for 8 months.

    • Word count: 1676
  9. What is an actuarially fair insurance premium? How might adverse selection and moral hazard lead to inefficiency in insurance markets? What actions may insurance companies take to reduce these problems?

    For example if probability of a suit is 1/5 then you can buy $1 worth of insurance for $.20. Below is the Budget constraint with actuarially fair insurance, were the slope of the budget constraint is = p/(1-p) In the diagram above where A is the endowment point and B the preferred consumption, insurance is actuarially fair. Equilibrium occurs where Cs= Cn. By making this expenditure on insurance, risk is eliminated. In the event of a lawsuit or no lawsuit her consumption is the same- she is fully insured.

    • Word count: 789
  10. Global Warming and its Impact: Mention both the global effects and the effects on a specific country.

    Consider however that the difference between average global temperatures now and the last ice age some 20,000 years ago is only around 6 to 8�c. The models also predict changes in rainfall and a continued rise in sea level rises due to thermal expansion of the ocean along with the melting glaciers and mountain snow and ice. The best estimate is a 50cm increase by 2100, but this will vary considerably with location. Such rapid changes in climate will be too great to allow many ecosystems to adapt, and therefore the rate of species extinction will increase.

    • Word count: 1296
  11. Global Warming.

    Instead, thanks to greenhouse gases, the earth's average temperature is a more than 60�F. However; problems may arise when of greenhouse gases increases. Carbon Dioxide is not in the Earth's atmosphere at high levels only 0.03% of the air is CO2. However it is a very important gas for the plants to be able to photosynthesis in order for the plant to grow. With out the use of Carbon Dioxide there would be no plant life or animal life on the Earth. Until the Iron Industrial Revolution and the world population expanded, the amount of Carbon Dioxide in the air atmosphere stayed the same.

    • Word count: 1149
  12. Global Environmental System - The Global Climate Change Affects on UK

    Also the climate is always defined as in a local area; because the local climate is formed by many factors, and the factors are not always the same in vary areas. There are mainly three determinations of the local climate, which are sunlight radio level, the atmospheric circumfluence and the surface situation. By these reasons, although the earth seems to be a blue planet, there are still numbers of different climate areas, which are called as the climate zones. These are the multi-reasons of the appearances of Torrid Zone and Frigid Zone, rain-belt and arid-belt, equator and the two poles.

    • Word count: 2194
  13. Discuss how Motivational Climate research might be used by teachers and coaches to positively influence children's experiences in sport.

    This can be closely linked to Atkinson's (1964) achievement motivation theory. In this study Atkinson (1964, citied in James Thompson & Wiggins, 1999. pg. 2) refers the theory, as to one's contact with the environment and the aspiration to be successful. People have a need to achieve or a need to avoid failure when placed in certain situations (Cox, 1998). As a result of this theory, it seems that choosing the correct environment, for which the child learns in, is a vital element of increasing motivation.

    • Word count: 2384
  14. Third World Development Essay - Global Warming

    This is that surface temperature of the Earth has increased 0.4 - 0.6 degrees Celsius in the past century. Global warming is caused by an increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases are transparent at the wavelengths of incoming solar radiation, which is therefore able to reach and warm the ground. However, they absorb the infrared radiation which is subsequently re-emitted from the Earths surface. Although these gases make up a small percentage of our atmosphere, they significantly affect the amount of infrared light energy leaving the earth. Since the start of the industrial revolution, human activities have caused a steady increase in the concentration of some greenhouse gases to extraordinary levels in the Earth's recent history (Houghton 2000).

    • Word count: 1523
  15. Power struggles exist within every country, within every province or state and even within cities. This is where Friedman's core/periphery model comes in to play for Canada.

    British Columbia The geographic region of British Columbia is composed of two physiographic regions and two climate zones. The Cordillera covers the majority of British Columbia's land except for a northeastern portion (Peace River Country), which is covered by the Interior Plains. Do to the rugged nature of the Cordillera, only 2% of this land is arable.2 Two climate zones also affect British Columbia's region: the Pacific climate zone and the Cordillera climate zone. Western British Columbia gets very mild and humid weather as where the interior get more fluctuating dry and cold weather. A leading Canadian geographer, John Bradbury, saw British Columbia as a periphery with characteristics of a core.3 This region has a very densely populated southwestern corner, considered to be its economic and industrial core; the rest of the province is a resource hinterland.

    • Word count: 2343
  16. Using examples at the local scale, examine the 'two-way' relationship between climate and human activity in upland moors and valleys.

    Furthermore organisations such as the Forestry Commission have converted many upland areas into forests as found in the Flow Country in Scotland and on many of the flanks of the Pennines. Climate affects human activity in a variety of ways in these areas. Man is better equipped to tolerate high temperatures than cold temperatures. Tourists who take to the moors must be therefore prepared for the unexpected climate fluctuations that can occur there, for example what seems like a calm morning may develop into a heavy shower of rain in the afternoon.

    • Word count: 1270
  17. This report is for the United Nations Officals, it will give an overview of the causes of flooding in Bangladesh and the impacts these floods have on the environment and people.

    Strategically located Bangladesh is virtually a bridge between south and southeast Asia. It has a landmass of 1,48,393 sq. km criss-crossed by a network of several major rivers, their numerous tributaries and canals forming a lace of interconnecting channels. In fact, Bangladesh is the largest riverine delta in the world. The Climate The average annual rainfall varies from a maximum of 5,690 mm in the northeast of the country to a minimum of 1,110 mm in the west. The groundwater, however, provides adequate storage to compensate for annual variations in rainfall and streamflow.

    • Word count: 807
  18. "What may cause sea levels to rise? How might rising sea levels pose significant problems for human populations? How might these negative effects be addressed?

    Ideas as to a possible sea-level rise are estimated at "up to 100 centimetres over the next 100 years". The Pew Centre on Global Climate Change ('PCGCC') have stated that sea levels have risen 25 centimetres in the last 100 years and they say they will rise another 50 centimetres in the next 100 years. The effects on coasts if sea levels were to rise are mass erosion of beaches; major flooding in low areas and loss of wetlands. More than 50% of the United States population live on or near the coast and are considered vulnerable to rising sea levels; the 'PCGCC' have believe the effect could be worsened if it were to be accompanied by storm activity.

    • Word count: 999
  19. Make a comparative study of the PPT between the tropical monsoon and cool temperate western maritime types of climate.

    The activity of this climate can be split into three seasons. March to May, June to September and October to February. In the march to may season it is very hot and dry. In the June to September season the rain hits and 80% of the annual PPT falls in this time. It is patterns of pulses of very heavy rainfall. Temperatures drop by a few degrees. Finally in the October to February season the wet season ends and there are generally clear skies with mild temperatures.

    • Word count: 610
  20. U.K Affects

    The north and west may get even wetter and there could be more storms and floods. * Many animals and plants may not be able to cope with the rising temperature and may move north as it will be cooler there than in the south. There might not be room for all of them so some might not survive. Global warming would damage wildlife ecosystems as they are being forced to migrate away from their homes. * Due to the rising sea level the Thames barrier could collapse due to a direct implication of the sea level continuing to rise.

    • Word count: 818
  21. Why should any firm accept its ethical or social responsibility to improve the environment for the stakeholders?

    Action Plan - Start project - Begin draft of desk research. - Complete desk research. - Relate desk research to 'Supermarkets' - Write up a conclusion - Evaluate - Complete assignment and check for errors. - Submit assignment. Field Research- Survey conducted to find out if customer's views on the environment. 1. This question was asked to fin out how many people actually care about the environment and want to help, these people are the community and customers from the stakeholder model.

    • Word count: 1032
  22. Why Does Climate Change?

    The climate for a region depends mainly on the yearly cycle of its temperature and moisture; this can dramatically change a region's climate. There are many other factors that play roles in climate depending on where the location is. Such as wind direction, seasonal humidity, location with respect to oceans and mountains, and cyclone activity. Even though there are so many factors to consider with climate, climate very slowly changes over time.

    • Word count: 492
  23. Floods in the UK - October/Autumn 2000

    Dr Andy Baker of Newcastle University said, 'our research suggests that British rainfall is naturally highly variable... We have shown that nature is able to repeat current events without the help of global warming. Effects There was degradation in the road and rail infrastructure. Hospitals were evacuated because of the risk of disease and illness. Bridges across rivers were opened and closed erratically as the water level fluctuated. Homeowners hit by floods saw premiums rise by up to 60%, as brokers tried to claw back the costs of claims topping �200m. The Insurance companies were contemplating refusing insurance to those homes repeatedly hit by flood plains.

    • Word count: 622
  24. A Closer Look at Global Warming

    Part of the debate over global warming centers on disparities between the surface temperature and upper-air temperature. While the Earth's surface temperature has risen, data collected by satellites and balloon-borne instruments since 1979 indicate little if any warming of the low-to mid- troposphere. The report concurs with a previous Research Council report that said despite these differences, "The warming trend in the global mean surface temperature observations during the past 20 years is undoubtedly real and is substantially greater than the average rate of warming in the 20th century." Read about a scientist's efforts to study disappearing glaciers in Alaska.

    • Word count: 1380

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