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What are the main factors that should be considered when performing a programme of ecological restoration?

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Introduction

What are the main factors that should be considered when performing a programme of ecological restoration? Contents Abstract Introduction The plan: Do's and Dont's How can the goals set out in the plan be achieved? Reasons for degradation Soil as a major factor in a programme of restoration The problem of exotic species The advantages of using grazers The advantages and disadvantages of using a keystone species Restoration of traditional farming methods Monitoring and communication Conclusion Literature cited Abstract Introduction The art of ecological restoration is in its infancy, with only aquatic restoration with well defined guidelines (Weiher 2007). Restoration, especially terrestrial restoration, needs more cohesion of efforts. Programmes of restoration need to follow tried and tested methods that have been well researched, well documented, and well monitored if they want to succeed. There have been countless attempts of restoration projects that have been undertaken with no post monitoring, so not only might they not be successful but others can not learn from the mistakes and improve upon them thus wasting resources (Wilkins et al 2003) The main factors of ecological restoration are well documented with the experts agreeing on the most important and least important to varying degrees. When endeavouring upon a programme of restoration most of the decisions should be made in the planning stages. ...read more.

Middle

If any topsoil is available it can e used no matter how little , the retention of soil moisture is very advantageous. (Bradshaw 1997) The problem of exotic species Exotic species have encroached on many habitats and communities throughout the world having a negative impact on them, reducing native biodiversity, altering hydrologic and fire regimes. Controlling exotic species can be labour intensive and costly. Extensive research into the landscape ecology could be invaluable. Borgman et al (2005) suggest the land use of the surrounding areas influences invasion by exotic species (and undesirable native species). As it is more likely to get exotic invasive species from disturbed landscapes (Hobbs 1989) it could be more profitable to site programmes of restoration further afield and closer to a similar older habitat thus increasing the potential for native plant recolonisation and survival ( Marvier et al 2004) As well as strategically placing restoration sites buffer zones can be included curbing development and this can help prevent invasion of exotic species (Pysek et al 2002) The advantages of using grazers Grazing is a natural part of our landscape and any restoration project should try and include as a natural grazing stock as possible. In 2006 two water buffalo were introduced onto the kingfishers bridge site in eastern England (Gulickx et all 2007). ...read more.

Conclusion

Risk Analysis 24:869-878. Moorcroft D., Whittingham M.J., Bradbury R.B. & Wilson J.D. 2002. The selection of stubble fields by wintering granivorous birds reflects vegetation cover and food abundance. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 535-547 birch Pysek, P., V. Jarosik, and T. Kucera. 2002. Patterns of invasion in temperate nature reserves. Biological Conservation 104:13-24. Richardson, D. M., N. Allsopp, C. M. D'Antonio, S. J. Milton, and M. Rejmanek. 2000. Plant invasions - the role of mutualisms. Biological Review 75:65-93. Slater M. 2007. Creation of a drystone wall to create egglaying habitat for grizzled skipper Pyrgus malvae at Ryton Wood Meadows Butterfly Conservation Reserve, Warwickshire, England. Conservation Evidence 4, 35-40 Weiher Evan . 2007.On the Status of Restoration Science: Obstacles and Opportunities. Restoration Ecology Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 340-343. Wilkins, S., D. A. Keith, and P. Adam. 2003. Measuring Success: Evaluating the Restoration of a Grassy Eucalypt Woodland on the Cumberland Plain, Sydney, Australia. Restoration Ecology Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 489-503. Parker Thomas V. and Pickett Steward T.A.. 1997. Restoration as an ecosystem process: implications of the modern ecological pardigm. Pages17-32 in Urbanska, Krystyna M., Webb, Nigel R, and Edwards, Peter J, editors. Restoration Ecology and Sustainable Development. Cambridge University Press. Sutherland. The conservation Handbook Reserve Management and Policy Urbanska, Krystyna M., Webb, Nigel R, and Edwards, Peter J, editors. Restoration Ecology and Sustainable Development. Cambridge University Press. ...read more.

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