• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14

Anthropology and Tourism Industry

Extracts from this document...


Introduction Anthropology has important contributions to offer to the study of tourism, especially through a neo-traditional approach that includes the basic ethnography and its national character variant, as well as the acculturation model and the awareness that tourism is only one element in culture change (Smith 1980). According to Smith (1980, p16) the purpose of anthropology is: ''to understand human nature in its psychic unity as well as in its particular manifestations of group and individual behaviors as they are shaped through participation in a specific society''. The World Tourism Organization (1995, p1) defines tourists as people who: "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited." With this definition the author found that the tourist sector is composed by different types of people with different travelling purposes. In order to classify these types of people, Smith (1977, cited in Burns, 1999) follows the footsteps of Cohen's tourist typology (1974) categorising tourists in seven groups from those who want to explore new places and new cultures to those who just want to relax in a safe environment enjoying western amenities, in order to find out what the specific tourist want: Explorers: tourists who live as active participants and observers among the local people, who accept the lifestyles and norms of their hosts. ...read more.


(Gonzalez, 2010). It is also true that the tourism industry is growing by leaps and bounds as appreciated in the study 'Tourism Vision 2020' by the World Tourism Organization (1998), forecasts of expectations for the year 2020 in international tourism, will reach 1561 million people moving and travelling throughout the world as tourists. This figure will probably not be reached if we consider the economic situation of many emitter countries that are economically stagnant or in recession. One of the main issues of tourism is the fact that this activity has been practised around the four corners of the earth. Cohen (2005) states that tourism is giving rise to contradictory trends: on one hand, a post-modern decline but in which something different is being sought and, on the other, a mix of tourism and exploration which is driving new tourists to explore places never visited before such as the space or the Antarctic. In the case of the space, Crouch et al. (2009) say that space stations and hotels are planning to be constructed in order to satisfy consumer's needs, furthermore new airlines companies such as Virgin Galaxy or Space Adventures have already started sending tourists to the space, right now space tourism's impacts do not really concern to us, but in future this type of new travelling will have negative impacts even if different worlds never explored by the humanity before. With reference to Antarctic tourism, Ward (2001, p.1) ...read more.


also states that the study of tourism needs to get more information about the details of humans' lives, motivations of travel the social interaction, the host reactions to the outsiders or the local traditions that will direct tourism to specific markets. Conclusions To sum up, Anthropology of Tourism is one of these "new specialities" of academic studies. Since anthropology focuses on the study of human behaviour and relationships between cultures, there is no doubt that tourism is now seen as an element of human culture, which is to say that it is a part of some way of life and its context; a phenomenon that continually makes contact to groups of different origins and between hosts and guests of the different destinations, creating sometimes false scenes or 'back regions' of local customs in order to satisfy the desires of tourists who want to experience an 'authentic' situation in their lives. In addition, tourism has come to transform the lives of many peoples across the globe: Small Pacific Islands, Caribbean areas, or different parts of the Mediterranean have come to radically transform their economies and societies in order to adapt and take advantage of tourism and tourists who demands Western amenities across remote and native areas in the worldwide. The Anthropology of Tourism aims to study those processes of transformation and cultural impacts that tourism has generated about societies at a particular time in history which have become touristic destinations, reason that explains why the anthropology is relevant to the business of tourism. Therefore, the role of anthropology as a social science in understanding the human being and the different societies in which it is organized can be decisive. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Anthropology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Anthropology essays

  1. Article Review. This essay is reviewing a text The original affluent society in Sahlins ...

    He stops just short of inviting us to adopt the Zen strategy, in which he argues "people can enjoy an unparalleled material plenty - with a low standard of living" (p.2). In addition, Sahlins agrees with Marx's observation that in "poor nations the people are comfortable, whereas in the rich nations they are generally poor" (p.2).


    I also feel that the balance of power will equalise as the session's progress and the relationship builds. I think that as the sessions go on the client will become surer of themselves and less in awe of the counsellor.

  1. The Relevance of Antropology

    To support, Bramwell (2004, p.7) suggests that mass tourism adopts an economic and managerial perspective on resort development, growth and increasingly, sustainability. Relating back to Cohen (1972) tourist typology, the organised mass tourist - will have minimal engagement with locals and relatively little inter-cultural contact as they remain in the environmental bubble, Burn (1999 p.

  2. Why has the concept of exchange proven such a useful tool in anthropology?

    that tradition gives shape to that which is inherent to all human beings. Thus, the Trobriands, according to Malinowski, engage in the dangerous kula as a result of the unavoidable strength of their innate tendencies - aspiring for social status and fame - and not because they are encouraged to do so by social values (Malinovski 1979).

  1. Durkheim on religion. In his text Elementary Forms of Religious Life Durkheim begins his ...

    [DP4]Be precise in your thinking and your writing. How is an 'understanding of religion' distinct from the 'relationship' between religion and society? Is not this connection a part of our understanding of religion? [DP5]This is completely unneeded. Durkheim's theories are all about society - you are not conveying a clear and new idea in this statement.

  2. Why was the concept of race so important to anthropology in the late ...

    Darwin was inspired in his theory of evolution by anthropological work of his time that had already accepted the idea of a sort of hierarchy of races, and polygenism at the heart of it.

  1. Extended Essay on Mimicry in Humans

    Yabar et al. (2006) conducted a study associated with in groups and out groups and found that female participants mimicked more favorably the nonverbal behaviour of members of their in-group than members of their out-group. The female participants viewed two different videotapes. All of the participants identified themselves as being not Christian.

  2. Free essay

    Dark Tourism: manipulating tourists interpretation

    E.g.: Places where Elvis Presley, James Dean and JFK died, Auschwitz or the Ground Zero in New York. Tours of torment: Tours/visits to attractions associated with death, murder and mayhem, such as mayhem and murder or the now notorious. E.g.: The small town of Soham in Cambridgeshire, U.K.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work