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University Degree: Anthropology

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  1. The purpose of this report is to organise the temporary exhibition of a collection of Sixties artefacts and memorabilia, loaned to the museum by Mr Peter Van, a private collector, for the duration of a week. This report will outline the logistics involved

    For more information on the loans in form see appendix. 3.0 The collection Mr Peter Van has agreed to lend the museum his collection of Sixties motoring memorabilia and artefacts which consist of approximately two-hundred objects including: * Clothing including: Mechanics overalls, race suits, fibreglass crash helmets, leather jackets, leather gloves, motorcycle boots, an original M1948 US military parka and various cotton promotional Tshirts. * 4 life sized Mannequins. * A large collection of Haynes vehicle service manuals. * Assorted vinyl records, including hits from The Who, The Kinks, Status Quo, Cream, Jimi Hendrix, and Aretha Franklin * An assortment

    • Word count: 2763
  2. Article Review. This essay is reviewing a text The original affluent society in Sahlins Stone age economics. It is a book by Marshall Sahlins, published in 1974, in the field of economic anthropology and still continues to rivet attention 37 years a

    Their low standard of living, and respectively few material desires, implies that the basic necessities of hunter-gatherer societies are frequently met. Sahlins compares the hunter-gatherer concept of affluence with the industrialist concept of wealth and concludes that "modern capitalist societies, however richly endowed, dedicate themselves to the proposition of scarcity" (p.3). People in developed nations work long hours and accumulate large amounts of material goods for the fear of future insufficiency (p.35). Hunter-gatherers, on the other hand, eat when they have food and move on to more abundant surroundings when food supplies grow insufficient.

    • Word count: 2258
  3. How are displacement, loss and exile reconciled across the generations?

    argues that through such commemorative ceremonies 'a community is reminded of its identity'. Without Remembrance Day, it would be easy for future generations to forget the sacrifices made by those in the army and civilians at the time of the First World War and how it has had an effect on their lives. The respect shown to members in the armed forces and civilians who were lost during the war is seen as a way to reconcile the past, to make sure the people who lost their lives are repaid being remembered by generations after them.

    • Word count: 2032
  4. Economic activities were an important component of life in prehistoric Greece. Discuss how Minoan Palaces supported such activities.

    The Minoans were residents of the Greek island of Crete and the civilization ruled from approximately 2700BC until its destruction by the Mycenaeans in 1450BC, but the palaces which formed their burgeoning economy only began being built at around 2000BC (Murray, Runnels, 2001: 79), known as the start of the old palace period. These palaces shaped a large part of the Minoan rule, probably governing five separate territories within Crete, allowing the economy to flourish under their leadership by supporting trade in several ways.

    • Word count: 2504
  5. What can the exchange of gifts tell us about society?

    In addition I will examine Mauss' description of the process of exchange and suggest that the 'rules of reciprocity', underlined by Mauss, apply to our modern society to the same extent that they do for traditional societies. Firstly I shall explore the work of Malinowski and his studies into the exchange systems in the Trobriand Islands. The Trobriand Islands are made up of a flat coral island which is about 30 miles long surrounded by numerous smaller islands. The villages are scattered along the western coast and in the centre.

    • Word count: 2215
  6. Field report - excavation

    The search site was area 'A' at the far side of Miller Park (see arrow on previous map). Fig. 3 shows a sketch made of the area and initial search perimeters. Fig. 4 shows the Avenham & Miller Park and all the access routes for cars, pedestrians and cyclists. Once at Avenham Park follow the path/ road down the hill pass the pavilion in the far corner (south) to the rail house and go under the bridge. Once through the metal gates there is a long stretch of road (south east), follow this right down to the end until you reach the second rail bridge which is on the right.

    • Word count: 2673
  7. In Search of Respect - a book review

    It can be seen that Bourgois's approach to this ethnography is somewhat complex to analyse as he does not take an immediate stance on who, in his opinion, is to blame for the social problems surrounding substance abuse in El Barrio. One could argue that his mention of the state plays a major role in shaping his views of the system, notably that is fails to tackle most problems of the ethnic impoverished groups in El Barrio. This can be seen by the basic problem of the concentration of socially marginalised populations in one area.

    • Word count: 2000
  8. In which ways does caste differ from class as a form of social hierarchy?

    "Untouchable" refers to the ritual polluting capacity they have to make higher castes "impure" through sight and touch. They are considered to be social outcasts and have no place within the caste system. Dumont (1966) uses the concepts of "purity" and "pollution" to illustrate the differences in status between the Brahmins and the Dailts. The ways in which caste can be seen as different from class as a form of social hierarchy will be assessed in terms of the meanings of both concepts, and how they differ from each other in terms of ascribed and achieved statuses using Bourdieu's concept of cultural capital.

    • Word count: 2500
  9. Discuss some of the recurrent themes in western representations of the non-European 'other'.

    While 'us' defines a very specific group of people, 'them' describes all those who are not deemed elite to be part of that 'us'. By picking apart the title of this essay, we come across three more words used to draw boundaries. It seems surprising that a title consisting of just thirteen words would contain as much as three cultural defining terms (Discuss some of the recurrent themes in western representations of the non-European 'other'), but this just acts to emphasise the importance that drawing boundaries has to many people.

    • Word count: 2102
  10. In what ways does caste differ from class as a form of social hierarchy?

    Caste has always been directly linked with the Hindu religion and exists in the form of an ancient hierarchy based on the notions of purity and pollution. In its simplest form, known as Varna, the caste system is seen to exist of four groups, the purest being the Brahmin, followed by the Kshatriya, the Vaishya and the Sudra. A fifth group, colonially known as the Untouchables, fall outside the rank. The hierarchy consists of a number of complex rituals related to purity that stem from the Brahmin, the priestly caste.

    • Word count: 2608
  11. A Child Called It

    I like Dave, because he seems really kind to everybody that he knows how to be kind to. Also, he tries to be honest, and is almost always hopeful and wishful. He is innocent, and smart. Here is a quote about him thinking about his relationship with his brothers: "After the boys had carved their pumpkins, I could hear mother, in her soothing voice, telling them a scary story. The more I heard, the more I hated each and every one of them. It was bad enough waiting, like a dog, out in the backyard on the rocks while they enjoyed dinner, but having to lay in a cold bathtub, shivering to keep warm, while they ate popcorn and listened to mothers' tale made me want to scream."

    • Word count: 2198
  12. What is witchcraft, and why is belief in witchcraft so widespread?

    The English oxford dictionary describes witchcraft as, "the exercise of allegedly magical powers, an act or instance of employing sorcery, especially with malevolent intent, a magical rite or technique; the exercise of supernatural powers, alleged intercourse with the devil or with a familiar; an irresistible influence or fascination, charm, enchantment" (REFERENCE). This definition is how witchcraft is perceived largely within western society, and is defined differently in disparate historical and cultural contexts. Most westerners still imagine witchcraft to be the work of people who operate secretly in the night and delve in cannibalism and other sinful acts whilst making pacts with the devil, this stereotype has been the cause of many problems that will be discussed within this essay.

    • Word count: 2300
  13. Discuss the purposes of genetic testing during pregnancy and the ethical issues raised by such testing

    The topic will be expanded to look at one neonatal test, the Guthrie test for phenylketonuia to illustrate one of the main purposes of genetic screening, and pre-implantation diagnosis, for example tests during in-vitro fertilization (IVF), as this is the real ethical battleground of the future. Most pregnant women are offered a variety of screening tests and, where it is deemed appropriate, specific diagnostic tests as well (Human Genetics Commission, 2006). Prenatal diagnostic tests provide diagnosis of particular conditions the baby may have (Ibid), and are carried out when there is a 'familial, maternal or fetal condition that confers an increased risk' (Cunniff, 2004).

    • Word count: 2993
  14. Cosmetic Surgery in the Philippine Setting

    The latter started in the 700's B.C. The Indians were traced to be the first ones to conduct simple surgeries like rhinoplasty - the type of plastic surgery that is used to improve the function (reconstructive surgery) or appearance (cosmetic surgery) of a person's nose. Rhinoplasty is also commonly called a "nose job."3 The real start of cosmetic surgery began in the 20th century. Obviously, technology is the shoulder of this. The main purpose of this surgery was to repair the faces of the victims of the World War I.

    • Word count: 2433
  15. Arthur Marwick argues that the sixties were characterised by the counter-cultural movements across a number of areas. Do you think that this view is supported by the evidence?

    This periodization could therefore be more accurately classified as a period of cultural change and social change from 1958 to1973, but for convenience in this assignment will be referred to as "the sixties". HISTORY To look at history in relation to the 1960's I am going to look at the attributes that mainstream culture was given and how counter-culture looked to challenge these. To study what was mainstream in the 1960's we have to look at the common place ideals that were widely accepted at the time.

    • Word count: 2056

    The second aspect of this dimension has to do with what people in a culture expect of s*x roles. In a very masculine culture, s*x roles would be differentiated while in a feminine culture s*x roles would be more similar. Long Term Orientation (LTO). This is a recent addition to the Hofstede model, added as a new dimension to the model in the second edition (2001). It is based on the philosophy of Confucius and has to do with "persistence, thrift, personal stability and respect for tradition" (p351).

    • Word count: 2182
  17. Frankfurt School on Popular Culture

    They were seduced into popular culture and encouraged to consume, falsely believing that what they got would provide satisfaction. The working classes had lost their ability to critically assess the exploitation and gone too was their ability to rise and revolt against it as Marx would've predicted. They had become consumed by their own shallow consumption. Popular culture was drip feeding the masses, much like a hypodermic syringe, into believing they needed and could not live without these products. According to Marcuse, capitalism creates "one-dimensional" people, who lack any real culture other than that fed to them by the media.

    • Word count: 2472
  18. Are theories of postmodernism Eurocentric?

    Post-modern theory thus analyses what it sees as the main causes for these changes, mainly being that of the mass media, the consumer society and information technology and how these changes have been brought about. It is a rejection of the old ways of analysis and the rejection of metanarratives in searching for a way of understanding and meaning in the present. As it is constantly looking at the present postmodernism is , in reality, a continuous work and as Glenn Ward wrote it is, "..an elastic critical category with a range of applications and potential understandings.

    • Word count: 2241
  19. What is Postmodernism? Fashion in Postmodernism

    In literature or film, postmodernism is seeing as a rejection of any link between the characters and the material social world. Moreover, these characters are seeing in the series of different images, which are not linked by the overall pattern. Postmodernists do not see a clear line between fact and fiction. They suggest that the relationship between words and things does not exist. This idea could be supported with the quote by Michel Foucault: "I am well aware that I have never written anything but fictions.

    • Word count: 2528
  20. The Idea that organizational culture can be managed is preposterous. Discuss.

    Pettigrew (1979) views it as a combination of beliefs and ideologies, and for Deal and Kennedy (1982); it is the way we do things around here. It is generally assumed by OC researchers that there are three levels of organizational culture analysis: observable culture (or what Schein, 2004 describes as artefacts), shared values and beliefs, and common assumptions. (Schermerhorn, et al 1994; Schein, 2004; Ogbonna, 1993). This classification is important as we shall see later; our classification determines our interpretation of the results of culture change efforts. OCM researchers do not share a consensus about the signification of culture management.

    • Word count: 2013

    can be a good names in one culture but can carry a different meaning & image of Barbie. Second important illustration of culture is behavior. As from the beginning, Barbie had her critics, from feminists and others, has been that she reinforces sexism, representing a young woman with questionable intelligence and a near-impossible physique. Barbie is sold around the world in the original blonde-haired, blue-eyed version along with international Barbie such as Kenyan Barbie, Polynesian Barbie, spring time in Tokyo Barbie (has black hair), etc. not all cultures have responded positively to her. In Egypt and other Middle Eastern countries, Barbie is not only likely to be banned but even replaced by dolls that these countries' governments have helped develop.

    • Word count: 2963
  22. Looking For Alibrandi

    Multiculturalism within Australian films offers its audiences an opportunity of recognising, as Australian, representations of social experience which are defined by their hybridity. Films such as Michael Jenkins' The Heartbreak Kid (1993), Aleksi Vellis' The Wog Boy (1999) and Kate Woods' Looking for Alibrandi (2000) depict a nation of "elaborate patterns of difference" as well as a construction of unity. In particular, Looking for Alibrandi's Josephine Alibrandi (Pia Miranda) typifies the hybridised Australian negotiating a cultural space for herself within her Italian community that is also negotiating its form and significance across grids of racial and cultural diversity.

    • Word count: 2020
  23. Is the representation of men and masculinity changing in popular culture

    Men's images and masculinity are fragmented, softened, subtly altered by the reference and illusion. Men occasionally appear in advertisements as sensual, caring, even effeminate; the 'new man' phenomenon, a true creation of the media, is promoted in magazines and television, and sportsmen and trade unionists weep in public in times of victory and defeat. Increasingly, thought not for the first time, masculinity is in 'crisis'.2 This paper will assess how the representation of men and masculinity is changing in popular culture and if there are new relations of looking that challenge the conventional dynamics where men own the gaze and others are the 'object' of the gaze.

    • Word count: 2569

    It should not matter but it does. Men place more significance on different events and words; women are softer? s****l ORIENTATION Do gays have different issues to straights? Would a straight male counsellor feel that every gay client fancied him? It would be hard for me not to assume what a gay client would be like prior to the first session. PROVIDE SUFFICIENT BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TO INDICATE AN AWARENESS OF THEIR OWN CULTURAL HERITAGE AND HOW THAT MAY IMPACT ON THE RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPED WITH CLIENTS Lago (2003: p28) writes that it has been estimated that, by the early 1960's, there were in excess of 160 different definitions of culture in the social science literature.

    • Word count: 2895
  25. Culture is concerned with aspects of the human society, which are learned rather than the aspects, which are inherited. These fundamentals are shared in members of a society and allow an understanding between individuals of a society. They locate share...

    Marx's so-called 'materialist conception of history' holds that societies can be understood primarily by looking at the way that mankind organises production of the basic wants and necessities of life, and the social relations arising thereof - 'In order to meet its fundamental material needs, a society develops an economic base and social classes... How it does this conditions the whole social, political, legal, moral and intellectual life' (5, p137). It should be noted, however, that although this economic base provides the main foundation for the 'superstructure' of the wider social system, Marx does not deny the existence of causal factors which operate in the other direction, although these are held to be much less significant.

    • Word count: 2505

"It may be in the cultural particularities of people - in their oddities - that some of the most instructive revelations of what it is to be generically human are to be found."

?Clifford Geertz

If you love challenging your assumptions and learning about different cultures, then maybe you'd enjoy studying anthropology at the university level. Anthropology is a broad discipline dealing with every aspect of humanlife, culture, and society, with particular emphasis placed on cultural relativism. It can be studied on its own, or joint with a related subject like ancient history or geography.

Advanced writing skills will be invaluable during any anthropology degree. To get up to speed, study Marked by Teachers' collection of student-submitted anthropology and social studies essays. The essays might spark an idea for a topic, and the teacher annotations will show you how to edit papers to perfection.

Anthropology students can remain in the field; take higher degrees in a related subject like sociology; or pursue careers in a wide variety of fields,including marketing, HR, media and consulting.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • How useful is the term "counter-culture" to describe developments in Western Society during the 1960s? Discuss with reference to any three of the five disciplines represented in Block 6.

    "To sum up there was no single counter culture but several movements which posed challenges to "mainstream society" I agree to a degree with Ray Davis of the pop group the Kinks who said "that the so-called "Freedom of the Sixties was a myth, that the so-called "counter-culture" never really infiltrated society and that the establishment continued to rule" (Block 6, pg 175) I agree that the establishment did continue to rule and that the sixties did not witness a political or economic revolution but it had great impact on personal and social life . In his autobiography Jim Haynes', 'Thanks for Coming!' shows the deflation felt by many at the end of the sixties. He says 'the end of the sixties came as an incredible collapse [...[we weren't going to change the world. We could only maybe change ourselves a bit. And I think that this resulted in a depression.' (Resource Book 4, page 24) I think this shows that many involved in the "counter-culture movements felt they were trying to change the world and its thanks to their "disanchantment with mainstream culture that has allowed future generations new freedoms in morality; tolerance, equality and acceptance. (Word 1810)"

  • Discuss some of the recurrent themes in western representations of the non-European 'other'.

    "What is clear from discussing these different representations of the 'other' we have is that while they may focus on very different locations, and completely different sets of misinterpretations, they all share some very common grounds - both in the way these representations are formed, and more importantly the way these representations are criticized and rejected. Therefore in conclusion, while there will always be different names given to the ways we may represent certain areas around the world, it is likely that there will always be one combined perceived 'other' that an ignorant westerner may apply very similar frameworks to, no matter how different they may actually be."

  • Assess the evidence for and against the 'media imperialism theory'

    "Conclusion Through these points I hopefully have given a small indication of what the arguments for and against the media imperialism debate are all about. Generally the criticism is levelled at the most dominant world force, America. It is true that during the whole of the 90's the Americans have sought to eliminate the international trade barriers that exist worldwide in order to capitalise on the possible financial rewards available. There may in the future be massive benefits from the weaker nations use of western orientated material, but that is far from clear. It is extremely debateable whether access to western media content is detrimental, as essentially everyone has a choice in the way that they act and the attitudes and beliefs that they chose to adopt. So in effect there will only be a negative effect on the culture of third world, developing or weaker nation if the people who are part of that culture let it slip away (Hutchinson: 1999: 200)."

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