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University Degree: Anthropology

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  1. Comics: American liberty or suppression?

    The principles of the fast-food restaurants, or also of credit cards (Ritzer, 1993), are regarded slightly different, depending on the author writing on the topic. The history of the concept of the past century is investigated to arrive at a general explanation of the thesis in the end. Well conceivable is the fact that the concept of America had already been formed theoretically before it was discovered (Kroes, 1996, p.1, 172). Myths and fantasies had emerged around the concept in Europe, while it was referred to as "the land of promise" (p.8), "a world of freedom" (p.172)

    • Word count: 2838
  2. The Emergence of Jewish thought in the Enlightenment

    This would also put such officials in good standing with the Christian Church. The people of that time must have felt so violated and uneasy. One day they could be free and the next they could be owned by the state or thrown out of the country like what Isabelle and her husband did in 1492 in Spain. "The real motive was the religious zeal of the Church, the Queen, and the masses. The official reason for driving out the Jews was that they encouraged the marranos to persist in their Jewishness and thus would not allow them to become good Christians."

    • Word count: 2230
  3. Critically discuss in detail the rise and fall and (if applicable) legacy of one youth culture and its musical association - Drum and Bass, Jungle.

    Choosing to (much like the music itself) sample the 'best bits' from a variety of other previous music cultures. Jungle and Junglists can be seen as a good example of a sub-culture built on post-modern aesthetics. The music itself has however never truly broken out into the popular mainstream or even the underground dance scene, conversely it has had numerous 'false deaths' but throughout has stayed constant with a solid group of supporters. Firstly, it is crucial to understand the birth of Jungle both as a genre and as a youth culture with a deep respect and acknowledgement of its influences.

    • Word count: 2021
  4. Identify and analyse the different roles that food and food rituals play in the religions.

    Religious beliefs, rituals, prestige systems, etiquette, social organization, and group unity are related to food. Throughout the Pacific, in Africa, and in most other parts of the tribal world, kinship groups work together in the production of food. Distribution of food is part of traditional obligations between people related biologically and through marriage ties, between clans, and between chiefs and their subjects. The accumulation; of food, particularly for ritual occasions, is a major way of obtaining prestige. At all significant events in the individual's life history - birth, puberty, marriage, death -there must be a feast, and the amount of food reflects the prestige of those giving it.

    • Word count: 2297
  5. Why is style important to subculture groups? Analyze the style and politics of one or two subculture groups.

    'Nuff said' This advertising slogan, coined to promote Fred Perry's tennis shirts, in its seemingly honest and simple slang style might symbolize what skinhead fashion is about: straight, unspectacular, functional, convenient, and yet stylish (at least considered as such) clothing. As not all of these qualities were promoted by the dominant and widely available pop and hippie fashion of the late 60s and early 70s, they had to be borrowed from various styles, which were used as well for their functional as for their aesthetic contribution to the new style.

    • Word count: 2371
  6. Music Speaks (African Music… a continuation of the Oral Tradition).

    Both historically and presently, music has served Africa as an instrument of political communication, transmitting political information and values, mobilizing the population, evoking and sustaining its pride and identity. There has been little detailed examination of the social role of the musician or griot in the various West African societies, and an adequate definition of that role, based on the various activities of the musician, is difficult to articulate. The griot has been called a musician, counselor, bard and herald; a genealogist; a chancellor, master of ceremonies, traditionalist, and archivist; a praiser; an historian; a spokesman and minister plenipotentiary.

    • Word count: 2760
  7. Critically examine the ways in which sub-cultural style has been appropriated as an object of investigation by cultural historians.

    This was followed by The Frankfurt School in 1923 who also conducted studies into the behaviour of urban groups that demonstrated a loss of authentic working-class culture. The Frankfurt School gathered Marxist theorists who severely opposed capitalism and its affect on society2 and as a result were interested in behaviour that resisted dominant cultural forms. Studies, investigations and definitions of sub-culture continued to develop during the 20th and 21st Centuries. Cultural historian, Miles Gordon states: "One of the functions of any science, 'natural' or 'social' is admittedly to discover and isolate increasingly smaller units of subject matter."

    • Word count: 2345
  8. The Clash of Civilizations: The New Source of World Conflict.

    The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future." (Huntington, p.47). To clarify, when talking about civilizations, Huntington refers to cultural entities, or more specifically "the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity." (Huntington, p.48) These civilizations are defined by "common objective elements such as language, history, religion, customs, and institutions, and by the subjective self-identification of people." (Huntington, p.48). Huntington stresses that civilization identity is becoming increasingly important. He puts forth that conflicts could potentially stem from the cultural fault lines separating eight major civilizations: The Western, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, and African civilizations (Huntington, p.

    • Word count: 2531
  9. Have developments in Information and Communication Technology led to a homogenisation or diversification of cultural styles and forms of association amongst young people?

    What is youth, a biological phase, or a as Fornas (1995:3) argues: "Youth is also a social category, framed by particular social institutions, particularly school, but certain rituals as well, such as confirmation or marriage, legislation directed towards age limits and coming of age, and social acts, such as leaving home, forming a family, getting educated and finding a profession." Fornas (1995) also claims that youth can be 'culturally determined in a discursive interplay with musical, visual and verbal signs to denote what is young' these signs however may not be the same in each culture; legislation in different countries varies as well as the social expectations.

    • Word count: 2545
  10. Can one, and if so under what circumstances, distinguish the religious from the political? Answer, drawing on ethnographic material.

    There are obvious ways in which this affinity realises itself in a social context. The most obvious one is when power is directly based on religion. This has historically been the case pharaonic Egypt, where the pharaoh guaranteed and maintained the cosmic order, and was himself seen as divine and omnipotent. This was also found in European monarchies, where the King was considered to be the representative of God on earth, in a Christian context. Another example corresponds to the Dalai lama, considered as the reincarnation of Buddha in Tibetan Buddhism and head of the Tibetan people.

    • Word count: 2285
  11. Rational recreation.

    It was not just prudishness behind this, but anxiety about the influence of this brassy medium. (In 1950 up to one third of the British population were going to the cinema at least once a week.) In the 20th century, high culture drew energy from an antagonism to popular culture. As John Carey's Intellectuals and the Masses (1992) documented, much of modernism in art and literature grew from a revulsion for mass culture (including mass literacy and mass political enfranchisement). Indeed, the idea of the masses, suborned by cultural technology, replaced that of 'the people', clinging to vulgar traditions and pastimes. The very phrase 'popular culture' signifies a later development whose effects are still with us.

    • Word count: 2241
  12. Body Modification, feminism and postmodernism

    Our culture shows the need for continuos improvement to our bodies. We are often either trying to improve our bodies to the point of perfection or we are trying to move away from our socialised culture. This can be seen with those who diet and body build trying to gain perfection, which has been defined by the mass media. Others are trying to reject the 'norm' and become more individual they do this by getting piercing or tattoos. "I make a statement, I've chosen myself.

    • Word count: 2360
  13. Critically evaluate Douglas Kellner's account of the 'Madonna Phenomenon' in his Media Culture.

    through television and video as well as in concert thereby enabling her work to be decoded, allowing the receivers of her message to develop personal views on what is being presented. This is summed up by Cathy Schwichtenberg in her book 'The Madonna Connections' (1993) writing that "Madonna's success may be due less to her artistic talent and more to her ability to tap into and disturb established hierarchies of gender and sexuality". Others, then, would argue against Madonna being a revolutionary transgressor but instead is a success pop star who uses subcultures to elicit a strong interest in her work and further her own ambitions and greed.

    • Word count: 2286
  14. Evaluate the criticism that traditional anthropology fixed cultures into particular places and times.

    These are often referred to as 'techniques of fixity' and range from the language of traditional anthropology to the research method used. Along with a number of other writers Clifford claims that it is the research method used in traditional anthropology that has created the idea of fixed cultures. Since Malinowski's influential study anthropologists have carried out ethnographic research. This involved anthropologists travelling to a place, known as the field, and living within the culture they were studying. Whilst Clifford recognises the advantages of such a method for obtaining detailed, valid data and maintains that such participant observation is "anthropology's most enduring contribution to humanistic study" (Clifford, 1992:99)

    • Word count: 2203
  15. Definitions of popular music.

    The film is about an aspiring performer trying to break through the barriers of inner city society. The song reflects this and is one of the reasons why it was chosen as the film's main track. The song is clearly of the Hip-Hop and Rap genres with identifying features including the spoken vocal style and simple but effective bass line. The lyrics common in Rap tunes consistently use rhyme, with the 'AB' rhyme pattern spread over whole verses. The vocal line also uses the snare drum to emphasise this. Lose Yourself has a tense, urgent sound. Eminem's rap is, as usual, technically strong.

    • Word count: 2514
  16. To What Extent are Cultural Differences a Hindrance to Effective Communication? How Can They be Overcome?

    Typically, such fears consist of being judged by others, encountering miscommunication, unintentionally causing offence or appearing condescending. Conversely, an individual's aspirations for interacting with culturally diverse people may include extending one's knowledge and worldliness, developing comradeship or simply entering into a dialogue of some sort. Why should we concern ourselves with the impact of cultural differences upon effective communication? Almost without exception, communication is ubiquitous in people's daily lives. It is also a truism that culture is at the root of many misunderstandings and conflicts at many different levels, ranging from interpersonal to international. In the face of continuing globalisation and today's international environment, increasing numbers of businesses and organisations work across borders - not just geographic borders but ethnic, religious, organisational and functional borders.

    • Word count: 2959
  17. Globalisation and Caribbean identity.

    Yet, this has not posed any limitations on us as we go through that "awesome process of becoming". We have survived the traumas of separation from the mother country as part of the slave trade and the indignity of the dehumanization of slavery through the use of that creative imagination resulting 'in the germ of a culture which shares more in common than many would care to believe". (Nettleford). Our political systems may differ but this is part of the dilemma of difference which is a manifestation of the complex process of diversity demanding of all of us in the

    • Word count: 2771
  18. Languages Shaping the Cultural Landscape.

    By the eleventh century, Gaelic was the most widespread language spoken across what is today modern-day Scotland. At this time Scotland was under the rule of a Gaelic speaking monarch, Malcolm Canmore. It was his marriage and ascension to the bride under the English house of royalty, which began the slow decline of prestige and influence of the Gaelic language. It was further put aside by the Union of Crowns under James IV of Scotland in 1603, and then in 1707 the Union of Parliaments caused the Gaelic culture to lose its legitimate claim to power and significance. The highlands have often been looked to provide the location for which Gaelic language and culture could reemerge today.

    • Word count: 2233
  19. This is a group project on the study of the business superstitions and mentalities of both Indians and Chinese.

    In fact the early ancestors of Kerala came across the Arabian Sea from Yemen in the region of Middle East. The people of Kerala are a mix of Aryans and Dravidians. Both are different groups of people who settle very early in Kerala. Viknish's caste or family name is Kathiru. It belongs to the Vaysha or Merchant caste, which the name suggests that all the members are traders and merchants. In Kerala, just as in the rest of India, the caste system has been a very vital and necessary element in the survival of the society.

    • Word count: 2181
  20. Book Review: In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. 2nd Edition By Philippe Bourgois (Cambridge Press 2000).

    The book is about the experiences and lives of the Puerto Rican drug dealers as well as their friends, families and girlfriends, who Bourgois depicts as victims of circumstance. The book starts off with Bourgois's own experience of how there is an 'apartheid' present in New York working against his subjects. This is upheld not only from the government who only see them only as addicts and dealers, but from the Police and other ethnic groups who have immigrated to the area.

    • Word count: 2499
  21. To what extent are the concepts of ideology and discourse significant in explaining the bond between space, culture and power? Which of these two is the more relevant? Are they not linked together?

    and performances (parades). These various actions make sense of the world by creating signs. That is why Peter Jackson states that 'representations and images are constitutive of the world'. Last but not least, the result of this 'signification' process through discourse is culture. So discourse is useful for an understanding of the cultural shaping process. Moreover, the idea of discourse may be closed to that of ideology if we define ideology as 'production of meanings and ideas'2. Indeed, people see the world through their discourse. Peter Jackson asserts that discourse is 'arguments about how people's geographical perceptions influence their actions'.

    • Word count: 2413
  22. This write-up examines the actual culture in practice at one of the multinational companies in Nigeria - Cadbury Nigeria Plc. From the myriad of culture definitions available, the student has picked the most relevant.

    An examination of CN's HRM practices in relation to the culture-in-practice. a. Main HRM practices that shape organizational culture 4. Espoused culture Vs Culture in practice: Drawbacks of misalignment 5. Conclusions and recommendations. 6. References Introduction What is culture? "Organisational culture is defined as the shared values, norms, behaviours, assumptions and expectations that guide organisation members in terms of how to approach their work and deal with each other and their customers." 1 This best describes how culture in the organisation operates in my own environment.

    • Word count: 2169

    Don Cabeza: A parrot can be thought to sing, Your Eminence. Cardinal: Yes, but how does one teach it to sing as melodiously as this? Don Cabeza: Your Eminence, this is a child of the jungle, [pulls him down] an animal with a human voice. If it were human, an animal would cringe at its vices. These creatures [he points at the Guarani] are lethal and lecherous. However it can be that our own customs and ideas may appear strange or barbaric to an observer from other society. In Walt Disney's Pocahontas, Pocahontas herself could not understand the lack of concern the settlers had for Mother Nature, to which the native Indians are spiritually connected.

    • Word count: 2612
  24. In order for a company to succeed, it needs to have a strong and firmly entrenched culture. In this assignment we look at the definition and types pf culture, how it is managed and developed to maintain high performance, within the organisation.

    Types of culture There are a number of different methods to categorise organisational culture. Handy developed the ideas of Harrison by describing four main types of organisational culture; > Power Culture > Role Culture > Task Culture > Person Culture Power Culture This type of culture is represented by a web structure. Departments within the organisation are represented by lines radiating from the centre however there are connecting lines from each department representing communication and power. Control is executed from the centre by a selection of individuals to maintain absolute control over subordinates on the outside of the web.

    • Word count: 2533
  25. Who Am I Today?

    Therefore, it has become a habit to ask each other, "Where do your parents come from?" or "Where were your parents born?". The answer to these questions never surprise us because we know that Armenians have established communities in all corners of the world. Hence, "diaspora's idea of the homeland ... could be the ancestral village in the Ottoman Empire, the city of birth, present day Armenia, or the ideal of an Armenia to be - and probably a combination of all these" (Panossian, 86). My homeland is the imagined Armenia (I have never been there), but I introduce myself as an Armenian born and raised in Lebanon.

    • Word count: 2334

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