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For instance, people often tend to copy non-verbal behaviours like gestures and expressions. Similarly, people wince at the sight of injury, thereby imitating the behaviour of the injured person. These actions are automatic, unconscious and more often than not both parties are unaware of this behaviour. Mimicry is widely prevalent in conversations where the reflexive copying of one person by another results in the unconscious back and forth trading of smiles, interjections and head nodding (Pentland, 2010). Mimicry is different from the conscious act of imitation in several ways. According to Bandura's (1977)
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This Research paper will present an overview of traditional Chinese marriage system and customs from the Engagement to the Wedding Day, also including various forms of marriages in ancient times.
The latter's children will form yet another circle of husbands and wives and so on. The only taboo in this marriage form is the asexual relationship between two generations, for example between a mother and her son or a grandfather and a daughter. In its typical form, a family would consist of the children of a single pair, the descendants of these children in each generation being again brothers and sisters and therefore husbands and wives of one another. In China a famous consanguine marriage is a Chinese creation myth, it says that at the beginning of the universe there were a brother, Fuxi, and a sister, N�wa, who lived in the Kunlun Mountains and who were the only survivors of a massive flood.
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To support, McCabe (2005, p. 86) suggests that the term 'tourist' is used as a concept to convey meanings about social life and activities within the context of wider social dialogues. However, Wall & Mathieson (2006, p. 17) argue that the range of the 'tourist' is complicated and has been expanded with the rise of tourism research. The ambiguity surrounding the concept provides a diverse result in human behaviour associated with leisure travel, consequently a typology of tourists can be derived, McCabe (2005, p.
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Furthermore, according to Dann (1998), dark tourism destinations can also be classified in five different categories described below: Perilous Places: Dangerous destinations from the past and present such as towns of horror, dangerous destinations. E.g.: Chernobyl or Hiroshima Houses of horror: Buildings associated with death and horror, either actual or represented such as dungeons of death or heinous hotels. E.g.: The London dungeon or the house of terror in Budapest. Fields of fatality: Areas/land commemorating death, fear, fame or infamy such as b****y battlegrounds, the h**l of the holocaust, or cemeteries for celebrities.
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Elite tourists: individuals who have been 'almost everywhere' but with pre-arranged service facilities and adapting fully but temporally to local norms. Off-beat tourists: tourists who want to look for stay away the touristic areas and want to do something beyond the norm. Unusual tourists: individuals interested in the 'primitive' culture but with safety facilities travelling by organized tours and adapted somewhat to local norms. Incipient mass tourists: steady flow of people seeking Western amenities and comfort Mass tourists: individuals with middle-class income and values who expect Western amenities and trained multi-lingual hotels and tourists staffs in order to fulfill their needs.
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servant found Rebekah, and one of the gifts he gave her was a "golden earring" the original Hebrew word used was Shanf, which also translates as "nose-ring". This practice is still followed among the nomadic Berber and Beja tribes of Africa, and the Bedouins of the Middle East, the size of the ring denotes the wealth of the family. It is given by the husband to his wife at the marriage, and is her security if she is divorced. Nose piercing was bought to India in the 16th Century from the Middle East by the Moghul emperors.
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How has the West represented the non-West, and what are the political implications of such representations?
I believe that the West used each of these situations for aggrandisement, by exploiting and extracting land, labour or resources. The result of this is the perpetuation of the current balance of power - the West maintains the economic and political power, and thus the control of the dominant discourse. Thus, they also retain the ability to represent the non-West in a way most beneficial to them, while the non-West nations remain marginalized and powerless. (Wallerstein in Seligson and Passe-Smith 1998, p.290)
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After colonial occupation, international concern about endangered species and soil erosion led to the creation of National Parks, and this has left many indigenous communities homeless in order to protect the wildlife. The result is an atmosphere of hostility and distrust between local communities and the state. This ignorance and misrepresentation of local traditions can result in local population's opinions being neglected, for example through misunderstanding different forms of protest: In Nicaragua, the reaction to the removal of the local population's access to natural resources was passive resistance, remaining silent and unresponsive.
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Discuss the extent to which tourism is a neo colonialist activity supported by cultural perceptions based on social Darwinism and colonialism.
Further to this, there are many areas that cultural perception can focus on such as the socio-cultural impacts or Doxeys' index of irritation (Smith. M, 2003 p. 53); probably too many for the scope of this paper, therefore the issue of s*x tourism will be focussed upon. 's****l conquest and exploitation were of paramount importance to the European colonizers, who raped and looted their way through the Americas. For more than five hundred years, the s****l labour of women has been embedded in the normal operation of political and economic structures in this part of the world.'(Kempadoo 1999, cited in Cabezas, A, 2004).
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'Sport trains the work force to operate according to the norms of capitalist, or bureaucratic state capitalist exploitation. Sport is basically a mechanism of the body, treated as an automaton, governed by the principle of maximising output' (Brohm, 1978, p55). This demonstrates how Brohm's (1978) work operates from a Marxist perspective, illustrating that sport is simply used as a vehicle to reproduce capitalist values and ideologies within society. However, Brohm's (1978) work is based on work previously theorised by Althusser (1971), which focuses on class struggle.
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The Culture of Britishness What role does 'language' play in notions of cultural and national identity in Britain?
"...it may be suspected that there is little in the functional side of our conscious behaviour in which language does not play its part." (Sapir, cited in Downes, 1998:1) Due to this multitude of roles that language plays a part in, it is perhaps not surprising that the actual word 'language' is also used in many different ways. At the simplest level 'language' can be used as a word that refers to a set of skills. This can be taken as something that can be learnt as a subject in school, as children and even adults are taught how to read and write in English language lessons for instance.
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Philosophy for Children I. The concept of the Community of Inquiry Central to the heart of P4C lies the notion of a community of inquiry. Originally a term from Pierce to reference interaction
that of the community the criteria of a "good" reason (the question of truth) or discovery vs. construction It is important to recognize the presence of these issues within the P4C method and to explore how these issues color our vision of that method. We will note certain tensions among writers about P4C in terms of which metaphysical vision best embraces the ideals behind the COI. In the sections below I will suggest also a series of questions that are provoked by discussions of the COI which will hopefully lead to further reflection and dialogue with the P4C community itself.
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Discuss the view that Adorno and Horkeimer's arguments are unduly pessimistic and irrelevant to contemporary society and moder
This may also be useful to bear in mind, when applying the relevance of their arguments in relation to modern day understanding of the cultural industries. The members of the Frankfurt School were writing during 1930s Germany, at the time of the rising of the Nazis social oppression of the Jews. Victims of European fascism, the Frankfurt School experienced first hand the ways that the Nazis used the instruments of the Mass Culture to produce submission to fascist culture and society.
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A characterization of communicative competence and the barriers that impede successful intercultural communication
Ting-Toomey (1999:262) identifies three criteria for communicative competence. They are "perceived appropriateness, effectiveness and satisfaction". She adds that intercultural communicators infer appropriateness, effectiveness and satisfaction from the verbal and non-verbal messages that are exchanged during an interaction (Ting-Toomey 1999:262). 2.1 Appropriateness Ting-Toomey (1999:262) states that appropriateness refers to the extent to which intercultural communicators behave in ways that are mutually acceptable. She adds that perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable behavior are shaped by the communicators respective "cultural socialization experiences" (Ting-Toomey 1999:263). For example, in certain African cultures gratitude is expressed by clapping the hands and averting the eyes to the ground.
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Instead, cultural diversity policy represents the end of cultural policy as we have understood it. The pursuit of aesthetic or historical understanding, of attempting to distinguish good paintings from bad or correct interpretations from false ones, is deemed impossible. Instead, all cultural institutions can do is to revel in 'diversity', by promoting different kinds of art and competing judgements. Today's cultural policy rejects the ways of the traditional cultural elite, and presents itself as far more enlightened. However, if we examine the legacy that cultural diversity policy has rejected, we find that some valuable principles have been lost by the wayside.
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A typical response intellectual and popular was a call for renewal. The West's challenge "proved" to be overwhelming, thereby forcing a revolutionary transformation in the minds of more and more Muslims, leading them to accept not only non-Islamic or western representations of the past and present but also and more importantly an alien non-traditional modality of change. It is this Jadidism that will be addressed now using the Russian Islamic context. Within that context two persons will be examined whose perspectives reflect the fundamental distinctions between classical Islamic and modernist approaches to reform: Abu Nasr Qursavi and Ismail Bey Gasprinskii.
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Kitsch is therefore an example of materiality that through being less charged with ambiguous meaning could subtly evoke shared, communal attitudes and reinforce socialist consciousness. As a result there are two aspects of kitsch that can be considered: first, its historical causes, and second its aesthetic dimensions. Comparing a few of the most widespread uses of the term, I will explore both of these aspects and explain how they are related to memory using the case study of Soviet Russia.
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(Huntington 1993). It is thought that without a common culture to associate them with, people struggle to communicate. With football being the most popular spectator sport in Britain (approximately 4-5 million attending a year) (University of Leicester 2002), it seems to be the perfect way to form a widespread bond amongst the public. Of course, it isn't as simple as that. Football is split into hundreds of different teams ranging from the Manchester United-types to local pub sides that all draw in varying crowds.
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The word modernus is created from the original ablative singular of modus (mode) added to -ernus, the adjectival suffix of time. Elaboration on the etymology is crucial because of the element of time involved with seeing how the term 'modern' is used because it is time that propels movement and, therefore, evolution. In literary context modernism is the character, tendencies, or values with adherence or sympathy to the modern while maintaining estrangement or divergence from the past in arts and literature occurring especially in the course of the twentieth century and taking form in any of the various innovative movements
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These standards are indicators of health and according to evolutionary theory give men clues about the reproductive capability of the woman. Without these standards of beauty, a man would have a difficult time discriminating a healthy woman who would produce healthy children from a woman of lesser health. Features of physical appearance such as full lips, clear smooth skin, clear eyes, lustrous hair and good muscle tone were all indications to our evolutionary ancestors of a healthy woman. Evidence of physical attractiveness as an important attribute to today's men comes from the content analysis of lonely-hearts advertisements.
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This evolution is marked by several key stages. The first was a transition from the period of modernity to structuralism. This occurred during the mid twentieth century by several influential French cultural theorists such as Saussure, L�vi-Strauss, Althusser, and Barthes. Structuralism arose from the linguistic development created by Saussure in the early 1910's, gradually shifting from language to culture, and instead became focused on 'the syntagmatic oppositions in language and how [they] were prevalent in all cultures'6, claiming that the majority of human activity could be understood with linguistic codes and rules.
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In 1920 laws were introduced that gave women the right to an abortion on demand, making the USSR the only country in Europe to do so, and thus catapulting her from a state of backwardness to one of pioneer status in one swift move. Alongside the change in society was the chance in industry. Women were, for the first time, allowed to work in the industries, albeit mostly in textiles. This was significant because it allowed for the freedom of women because they could afford to buy a home and food, whereas before the ideals women were almost totally dependant on men.
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Their prescribed role is one of servant to their male partners or family members (Gunther-Canada 13). Rousseau's book seeks to think through a way in which the modern middle-class marriage might be maintained in a culture of freedom. In giving this responsibility to the woman and insisting that she be educated properly for the responsibility, Rousseau maintains that a suitable emotional and s****l life must be established if the family is to function properly. Sexuality and the various emotional states that go along with it are essential for this to occur (Gunther-Canada 14).
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Essie Parrish, a Kashia Pomos shamaness from North America, gave the following description of her initial journey into the spirit world, which she undertook at the age of seven whilst unconscious. 'Through rolling hills I walked.... I walked and walked until I came to a footbridge, and on the right side there were a whole lot of people and they were naked and crying out, "We're stuck here. Please come over here and help us cross. The water's too deep for us."....
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What do you understand by the term Internet Culture? Address some of the key critical questions being asked in this area?
Oral Culture, Print Culture, Popular Culture and what we are attempting to understand within this research, Internet Culture begins to have a more clear and concise meaning. The very nature of the words associated and linked to the term culture allow for a more natural semblance of association. Once a word has been linked with the massive expanse of the term culture, the essence and meaning of a task such as describing what you understand by the term Internet Culture becomes significantly easier to digest and comprehend.
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