• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Argumentative paper. Discuss problems associated with the ways that gender is constructed in our society.

Extracts from this document...


12/11/2011 Word Count ? 1,206 excluding citation list. Title: Argumentative paper. Discuss problems associated with the ways that gender is constructed in our society. This discussion will focus upon societal gender construction and how it affects the health of the individual. Following an introduction to the differentiation between ?sex? and ?gender? there will be a brief overview of the principles, history and ideology of traditional gender role construction. An overview of gender related health inequalities in modern society will be introduced followed by a discussion about current proposals to address the question of health inequalities attributed to societal gender role construction. It is important to define the difference in sex and gender roles at the outset of this discussion. The World Health Organisation (WHO) WHO gender mainstreaming strategy -Integrating gender analysis and actions into the work of WHO states that sex refers to the biological characteristics of the individual, as opposed to gender, which refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. These socially constructed roles have been and continue to be the subject of much contention amongst sociological and anthropological theorists Talcott Parsons and John Bowlby argued the functionalist perspective that marked differences in gender roles contribute to social stability and integration. ...read more.


while men are encouraged from boyhood to be aggressive thus tend to indulge in riskier behaviours that may be detrimental to their health. Blurring of the lines between societal gender role constructs, sex and sexuality has provided liberation in many respects for groups of people who were before bound by traditional roles and conditioned into male or female gender roles. However, for transgendered individuals, such social constructs have been restrictive and extremely detrimental to their physical and mental well-being and despite a change towards a more well informed society, statistics show that as a group they remain at a disadvantage when attempting to access health services. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) apply the ?minority stress model? to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LBGT) community, suggesting that these groups experience chronic stress as a result of their stigmatization within society (221). Chakraborty et al (143-148) and Mustansky et al (2426-2432) produced statistical data to suggest that individuals within the LGBT adult and adolescent community frequently presented with mental health problems in numbers that mirrored the same prevalence of mental illness in other minority groups. ...read more.


Cambridge: Polity Press. 2001. Hines, Sally. ?(Trans)Forming Gender: Social Change and Transgender Citizenship? (2007) Newcastle University Sociological Research Online, Vol 12, Issue 1 (2007). 12/11/2011 <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/12/1/hines.html> IOM (Institute of Medicine). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2011 12/11/11 <http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13128#description> Mustanski, Brian S., Garofalo, Robert, Emerson, Erin M. ?Mental Health Disorders, Psychological Distress, and Suicidality in a Diverse Sample of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youths? Am J Public Health 100 (2010): 2426-2432 Naidoo, Jennie and Wills, Jane. Foundations for Health Promotion. 3rd Edn. Edinburgh:Elsevier.2009 O?Brien, Margaret and Deborah Jones. ?Children, Parental Employment and Educational Attainment: an English Case Study?, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23 (1999): 599-621 Sheaff, Michael. Sociology and Health Care: An Introduction for Nurses, Midwives and Allied Health Professionals. Maidenhead: Open University Press. 2009. World Health Organisation Strategy for integrating gender analysis and actions into the work of WHO? 2007. 12/11/2011 <http://www.who.int/gender/mainstreaming/strategy/en/index.html> World Health Organisation Prevention and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men and transgender populations: report of a technical consultation, 15?17 September 2008, Geneva. 2008 12/11/2011 < http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/populations/msm_mreport_2008.pdf> ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Gender Studies section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Gender Studies essays

  1. The Development of Gender in the Individual.

    Parents and others, through the giving of rewards and sanctions, encourage children to adopt what they consider to be the appropriate gender role; indeed, the assumption that parents clearly differentiate between boys and girls is central to this theory. There are, however, contradictory findings from studies on how much parents differentiate between male and female children.

  2. With reference to femininity, discuss the ways in which gender norms intersect with ideas ...

    The discourse of white privilege holds whiteness as the superior identity and is normalised and reproduced through the surveillance of non-white identities. The construction of an ideal femininity includes whiteness as an inherent arbitrary value for beauty and success. Mullen identifies this retraining and altering the body and changing of

  1. Discuss the gender inequalities in employment in two countries that you have studied.

    The latter view was adopted and child care laws were implemented based on universalist principles and framed public childcare provision as a child's right (Salmi, 2006). Thus, there was a rapid expansion of childcare, and Sweden has a record high provision for children under three.

  2. Postponed parenthood: A modern phenomenon. Childbearing later in life is a growing phenomenon ...

    Autism and schizophrenia is also associated with the children of older fathers, with a relative 1.6 risk of autism for children of men over age 40-44 (Ibid). Finally, there is an increased risk for bipolar disorder in adulthood for later-born children, with fathers 55 or older having a 35% higher chance than fathers age 20-25 (Howton, 2008).

  1. Freud and de Beauvoir on gender difference. Freud (albeit indirectly) and de Beauvoirs works ...

    In this way, it can be seen that for him, if a girl exhibits masculine traits it is due to biological as opposed to environmental reasons. Likewise, femininity, for him, is also predetermined by ones "constitution," although "a girl who is destined to become feminine is not spared" the disappointment of not having a penis (Freud, 162).

  2. Consider the medias preoccupation with disciplining the way in which women and men perform ...

    Ray Kroc (the founder of McDonalds) once said: "Look after the consumer and the business will look after itself", this could have perhaps been rephrased as 'look after the advertisers and the consumers will look after you'. Advertising is significantly involved in the perpetuation of particular and idealized renditions of femininity and, increasingly masculinity, working to

  1. The Male-Dominance System and How It Affects Gender Inequality in Society

    Many of the images are edited with Photoshop to promote perfection of physical appearance. In the United States, there are almost 12 million cosmetic surgeries a year for women who wish to improve their physical appearance to ?fit in? more or look like the models they see in these advertisements.

  2. Critically discuss the idea of normal eating? What issues does a sociological approach raise ...

    Eating habits and perfect body stereotypes can be seen everywhere in our daily life. It is also essential to understand that eating habits and the main discussion is closely linked to what body represents for individual and society.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work