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University Degree: Criminology

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  1. Early on in Discipline and Punish, Foucault makes the argument that discipline and punishment shifted from the corporal to the mind and soul during the eighteenth century.

    The disciplinary techniques of the eighteenth century concern the body because it is the "vehicle of the soul," and in order to penetrate the soul effectively, one must first discipline the body (16). One of the means through which Foucault argues that people are disciplined is through the controlling of space. Here, Foucault uses the example of factories: "it was a question of distributing the individuals in a space in which one might isolate them and map them" (144). By separating these individuals according to their job and in such a manner so as to keep them from interacting too much with their co-workers, the supervisor in charge could make sure that work was getting done in an efficient manner.

    • Word count: 1954
  2. What do you understand by the terms prejudice and discrimination and stereotyping? Discuss how these might impact on the work of a police officer.

    2 Over time, other observers have disagreed with some of the suppositions within this definition, providing alternative perspectives. For example, in Prejudice: Its Social Psychology, Brown (1995, p.5) suggests prejudice is: The holding of derogatory social attitudes or cognitive beliefs, the expression of negative affect, or the display of hostile or discriminatory behaviour towards members of a group on account of their membership of that group. As can be seen, both definitions hold almost identical phrases, such as membership of a particular group alone being enough to become a target of prejudice.

    • Word count: 2227
  3. Outline and critically discuss the way in which your studies have developed your understanding of the inner relationship between deviance and social control

    My understanding of social control before this module was that it encompassed the way in which a society is governed, policed, and dictated. I thought the definition of social control was about how we live our lives, and make decisions in accordance to a set of guidelines, rules and regulations that have been set out by a group of much more powerful, influential figures in society. I think that social control is not universal, all countries have completely different ways in which their society is controlled, and I also think that all societies need to be controlled in some way shape or form, although most like the idea of (social)

    • Word count: 2238
  4. Methods of Uncovering the Dark Figure of Crime

    The survey uncovered hidden crimes of a pastor (Portfield 1946). In addition, the survey exposed an unreported murder. Furthermore, improvements to self-reporting have increased its dependability (Portfield 1946). In the late 1980s, James Short and F. Ivan Nye created a number of reliability checks. This increased the ability of self-reported surveys to uncover the 'dark figure of crime.' Their improvements included the introduction of social desirability variables (Short and Nye 1988). This resulted in increased statistical accuracy by discarding responses pertaining to those respondents who stated that they never committed marginal criminal behavior.

    • Word count: 2576
  5. Using Hirschis (1969) social bond theory to analyse the drug detoxification camp run by the Wu Oi Christian charity.

    social bond theory. Belief As supplement to the 'belief' aspect of Hirschi's theory, Matza and Skyes (1961) states that conventional moral beliefs are paramount, and to engage in misbehavior, youths must neutralize their moral force. Yet, "religious behaviors and beliefs exert a moderate deterrent effect on individuals' criminal behavior" (Baier & Wright, 2001), to such extent, Wu Oi possess a critical advantage when comparing with the DATCs managed by the government like Hei Ling Chau Addiction Treatment Centre which makes no stress on the construction of conventional moral belief but only to exert distinction between drugs and the abusers.

    • Word count: 3252
  6. Moral Panic. How much concern in how many individuals constitutes a genuine case of moral panic? Why do some panics occur among certain segments among the public but not others?

    Focusing on moral panics in the guest lecture raises questions in my head. How much concern in how many individuals constitutes a genuine case of moral panic? Why do some panics occur among certain segments among the public but not others? Moral panics frequently erupt in our modern society, a fact that should cause us to question their sophisticated and tolerant towards nonconformity. It is entirely likely that moral panics serve as a mechanism for simultaneously strengthening and redrawing society's moral boundaries, the line between morality and immorality, just where one leaves the territory of good and enters that of evil.

    • Word count: 457
  7. Digital Evidence. If a computer is the fruit or instrumentality of a crime, the investigators will focus on the hardware. If the crime involves contraband information, the investigators will look for anything that relates to that information,

    If a computer is the fruit or instrumentality of a crime, the investigators will focus on the hardware. If the crime involves contraband information, the investigators will look for anything that relates to that information, including the hardware containing it. If information on a computer is evidence and the investigators know what they are looking for, it might be possible to collect the evidence needed quite quickly. Swift searches are necessary in exigent circumstances. If the information is evidence but the investigators do not know what they are looking for, then either a lengthy search of the computers involved will be required or it might make sense to collect everything and search it later in a controlled environment.

    • Word count: 512
  8. Criminal Psychology: Rehabilitating Offenders are there better methods to achieve this?

    The programme showed a significant increase in the targeted behaviours compared to the group not involved in the programme. Other studies showed that token reinforcement also works with adult prisoners (Ayllon & Millan, 1979) However Ross and Mackay (1976) reported deterioration in behaviour when such a programme was used with delinquent girls, but such results are unusual (Ewan Williams 2010). Although these programmes are popular, especially in the US, not many of them have been evaluated in terms of the conduct of the offenders after release. Moyes et al (1985) reported limited success with hospitalised behaviourally disordered males and females with a criminal history, after a year they had had fewer contacts with the police than a control group of similar patients, but after two years there was no difference (Ewan Williams 2010).

    • Word count: 3567
  9. PRISONS: AMERICAS CRIMINAL WAREHOUSES. Recent budget crises and the rapid increase of incarceration rates are forcing states to re-examine the effectiveness and efficiency of their jail systems. It is clear that it is time to move away from a mod

    California and Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger 3. Most inmates commit nonviolent crimes F. Prison Spending 1. 50 billion dollars being spent a year on prisons 2. The third-largest state expenditure Away from the mainstream concerns of the American people, an ignored issue is draining billions of dollars the United States' yearly budget. Prisons across the country act as warehouses for millions of the nation's criminals, more than half of which will be returning to prison after three years of being released. Recent budget crises and the rapid increase of incarceration rates are forcing states to re-examine the effectiveness and efficiency of their jail systems.

    • Word count: 2552
  10. r**e. This project will introduce r**e as a crime using common definition, statistics and academic literature. Secondly will use feminist theories and explain the r**e, providing theories strengths and weaknesses.

    Historically legal definitions of r**e were very limited and narrow describing r**e as forced s*x done by a stranger, exclusively by a man against a woman who was not his wife. Today as laws are more global r**e is gender neutral and involves not only 'men r****g women' but also dating partners, spouses, homosexuals, old and young and men as victims too (Vito, Maahs & Holmes, 2007). There are a lot of myths about r**e. One of the most pervasive and damaging myths about r****g is that r**e is actually a s****l act.

    • Word count: 5116
  11. The Threat of Nuclear, Biological or Chemical Weapons and Terrorism.

    The Aum Shinrikyo attack demonstrates the unpredictable nature of chemical weapons and problematic issues of dissemination. Nuclear Weapons in the work place Since 1951 there have been 67,500 nuclear missiles built, with an estimated construction cost for more than 1,000 ICBM launch pads and silos and support facilities form 1957-1965 running nearly $14,000,000,000. A nuclear weapon is another way to cause an explosion. The heat and blast of a nuclear explosion are similar to those of conventional weapons, but they are much more powerful. Nuclear weapons produce deadly gamma radiation that other weapons do not. When a nuclear weapon is detonated, there is a bright flash of light brighter than the sun itself, followed by the formation of the atomic fireball.

    • Word count: 2031
  12. Restorative justice is currently hailed as a progressive way to deal with young offenders. But what are the hidden pitfalls of using this approach?

    The goal, as it was designed and as it has borne out, is to make the community a safer, more whole place through a commonly experienced 'healing' process. When a crime is committed, the entire community suffers. It does not matter where they live, people are at least momentarily devastated and probably forever changed by the news of violent crime. Therefore it's important to restore a sense of social wellbeing, and justice, in the community as a whole. Often, it is argued that tougher sentences should be introduced, however there is no evidence that these measures reduce levels of offending, and in many cases they do little if anything for the victims of crime.

    • Word count: 2257
  13. An investigation into the extent of homophobic hate crime and the leaders involved in tackling the problem in Manchester

    (Homophobic Hate Crime 2008) There is also minimal funding for large scale studies to be carried out, which would provide a more reliable picture of the problem and how it could be reduced. (d**k 2008) Moreover the CJS and policymakers look at homophobic hate crime related data that is based on police records. This, as explained by the Association of Chief Police Officers, is highly unreliable because although all police staff are required to record different forms of hate crimes, in reality these recordings are heavily based on police officers' alacrity and willingness to record such crimes.

    • Word count: 4995
  14. The role of values, including diversity, in my practiceWithin my role as Probation Service Officer I constantly work towards and promote antidiscriminatory practice.

    (Williams B. 1995). However many faiths offer ideas on ways of responding to crime. Many political and philosophical traditions have also proposed ideas as to the right way to respond to offenders and victims. Emmanuel Kant held that everyone is worthy of respect. People are of intrinsic worth regardless of whether we feel that they are useful to us or not. Values such as client self determination and treating offenders as unique and not part of a group to be generalised have tended to derive from this position. In my role as Probation Service Officer it is important to be aware of my own values and the impact it may have on my professional practice.

    • Word count: 598
  15. Anthropology and its Uses in Single Body and Mass Fatality Cases

    Forensic anthropology is applying the science of physical anthropology and archaeology, and also applying human osteology and odontology so that legal cases can be solved and proved. Forensic anthropologists recover and identify skeletal remains; the condition of these remains varies greatly (they can be decomposed, cremated, mutilated, disarticulated or fragmented to name a few), and cases range from "recent homicides to the illegal destruction of ancient Indian burial sites" (Ramey-Burns, 2007, p.3). Forensic anthropologists work many different types of cases, from individual cases to mass disasters and human rights cases, so it is quite a wide field.

    • Word count: 16918
  16. Forensic Science. The first role of the ballistic expert is to ensure that the weapons are safe to handle, this would involve the removal of any magazines, rounds in the chamber, or the breach and on automatic weapons, change the fire selector to single r

    The striations are created by the rifling of the weapons barrel. Rifling is built into the barrels of firearms to impart a spin onto the bullets that pass through it. This is because bullets are oblong objects; and therefore they must spin in their flight, like a thrown rugby ball, to be accurate. Looking down the barrel of a firearm, rifling might be seen similar to that depicted on the left. This image shows a pattern of rifling containing six grooves with a right twist.

    • Word count: 1456
  17. The consumption and control of legal and illegal opiates has clear global dimensions. Discuss.

    This trade continued until the Chinese finally convinced the British to end the India-China opium trade in 1910, after the first International Opium Commission had met in Shanghai, convened by the United States and attended by 13 world Powers. By this time the medical uses of opiates were well known, and the misuse of morphine and heroin was on the rise both in the Far East, Europe and the USA. As a direct consequence of the Shanghai Conference, the Hague Opium Convention was signed in 1912.

    • Word count: 1261
  18. Is the British penal system effective? Most of the evidence points to prison not being cost effective or instrumental in rehabilitation. I have also, through sociological evidence, stated effective alternatives to incarceration, the psychological effects

    From a wider context, problems such as overcrowding will be discussed. Thirdly, prisons do not serve only as a form of punishment but also aim to help criminals not to re-offend. Therefore, this essay will also mention about the services available within prisons which attempt to reduce the number of prisoners re-offending after release. The question of our prisons effectiveness will be discussed. Finally I will examine some of the alternatives tools available to Magistrates and Judges instead of incarceration. First the aim of the prison service, as outlined above, is to punish offenders and also to protect the public.

    • Word count: 4521
  19. Is the US Policy of the War on Drugs Effective?

    Illegal drugs are a $60-billion-per-year industry patronized by at least 16 million Americans, 7 percent of the U.S. population over the age of 12. The level of usage has clearly worried the rest of the population from 1985 until 2001. So when americans were asked what they thought was the most important problem facing the nation. So is the war on drugs effective. B. Policy Analysis The Controlled Substances Act known as Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 passed by President Nixon. The term War on Drugs was first formally used by former president Richard Nixon in 1971 to describe a new plan to enforce drug prohibition.

    • Word count: 1601
  20. Gun Control. In this paper, the author will discuss the magnitude of gun control regulation its implementation; and the impact it has on American culture and values. For the sake of argument, guns are not criminals, people who use guns are; and

    In the case of the District of Columbia v. Heller, the majority found the provision in the D.C. law requiring licenses for guns carried only in the home to be unconstitutional. Under the statute, handguns stored in the home require disassembly, or with a trigger lock be disabled. The court ruled that the storage procedures violated a handgun owners' Second Amendment rights because such a stored gun is not functional. The case marked the first time in decades that a case interpreting the Second Amendment was heard, and the decision maintained the high court's long-held position that the Second Amendment grants individuals the right to keep and bear arms (Brown, 2008).

    • Word count: 2178
  21. This essay will look at why do youth justice professionals argue for a reduction in the use of incarceration for young people and why has it been unsuccessful.

    The youth justice board revealed that there are 10 children aged 12, 75 children aged 13 and 175 aged 14 now being incarcerated in England and Wales. Burrell (2002) stated that "The number of children in custody under 14 has risen by 75 per cent since last year". Arnold (2008) believes that "If an individual is under the age of eighteen, he or she should still be considered a child and treated appropriately by the legal system". Arnold (2008) argues that "Contrary to current beliefs, children should not be treated as adults because juvenile justice system proves more beneficial to helping children".

    • Word count: 723
  22. Can terrorism ever be stopped? The existence of terrorism is a threat to civilization but there are ways to discourage terrorism and limit or minimize the destructive consequences of terrorism.In its entirety, though I would tend to say that its h

    The existence of terrorism is a threat to civilization but there are ways to discourage terrorism and limit or minimize the destructive consequences of terrorism.In its entirety, though I would tend to say that it's hard to stop all the terrorism. Here comes the question,why the terrorism appears?Terror must be accepted as the unavoidable result of the legacy of colonialism that the First world has left on the Third, which was much aggravate by Cold War.Since the last century most areas of African, Arab, and Asian have suffered a great damage in economic and debilitated for a long time.As the

    • Word count: 1212
  23. What the relationship between drugs and crime?

    profit of illicit drug product and most likely do no use the product they deal in, concerning the personal harms that it can cause.Their offending is seen by the government as serious criminal behaviour and they are currently dealt with in the criminal courts. For the reason of high profit,many poor people begin to join this area and the increasing number of poppy are planted.Then apear countries such as Columbia whose main economic support is drug business. According to the statistics,the drug does not cause much crime as alcohol,approximately 5% crime related to drugs,but why drug is defined as a

    • Word count: 1184
  24. Organisational structure of a Police Force.

    As police chief it is vital to stay well connected with the community, subordinates, municipal leaders, and significant others. Acting as a police executive is a networking job. Below police executive come middle managers, which are the captains and lieutenants. Middle managers are responsible for inspecting assigned operations, reviewing reports, helping develop plans and schedules, overseeing record and equipment, managing confiscated property, and enforcing all laws and orders. They are also in charge of sergeants and all other officers. Below the middle managers are the first-line supervisors or sergeants.

    • Word count: 1638
  25. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the accuracy of the difference between civil and criminal sanctions is that the former are designed to compensate and the latter are designed to punish This essay will draw on examples of both civil and crimin

    Lim Poh Choo v Camden and Islington Area Health Authority, Court of Appeal, Civil Division. Dr Lim Poh Choo was a senior psychiatric registrar when she needed to have minor gynaecological surgery. Following the operation, Dr Lim Poh Choo suffered a cardiac arrest due to somebody's failure. The health authority is responsible for this. As a result of the cardiac arrest, Dr Lim Poh Choo was in a coma, following the coma she could not walk or talk. She now has brain damage, has lack of coordination in all four limbs, she's depressed and withdrawn and has difficulty speaking.

    • Word count: 2088

"I claim that human mind or human society is not divided into watertight compartments called social, political and religious. All act and react upon one another."

-Mahatma Gandhi

Social studies is all about humans, whether it's the structure of our society (sociology), our interactions with the environment (human and social geography), our struggle forpower (politics), our tendency to break laws (criminology), or our capacity to form a wealth of distinct cultures (anthropology). If this sounds terribly interestingto you, then perhaps you should consider studying one of the social studies subjects at university.

Students of these subjects should ready themselves for a significant amount of writing. If you'd like a little bit of help with this, Marked by Teachers is here for you. Read our student-submitted social studies essays to get inspired, and study the teacher annotations to gain insight into what earns top marks. Before long, you'll be writing papers that do full justice to your great ideas.

When students of these subjects leave university, they tend to apply their degrees directly in academia, consulting, and analysis, or transfer the skillsto other careers like planning ,HR,marketing and media.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • In my essay I will attempt to describe Mills concept The Sociological Imagination and common-sense explanation and use the main ideas and differences between sociological imagination and common-sense to analyse the topic of racism in UK.

    "In conclusion I want to say that racism is alive because people do not use sociological imagination but find useful common-sense ideas: they do not think with own head just follow stereotypes. If people with racist ideas used sociological imagination and looked at asylum seekers and immigrants from the perspective of culture and loss they would understand what must it be like to leave your country, family, language, and culture for a community in which you are treated as less than human (J. Rothenberg, 10.05.2009). Moreover if a racist used sociological imagination and looked at human but not at his skin colour, ethnicity or race I think they would understand that our all blood is red, we all feel pain and we are all equal. As for the future looking at our failing economy, increased number of hate crimes I think that teaching the next generation how to practice the sociological imagination is more crucial now than ever."

  • What are the aims of the Youth Justice System in England and Wales. How did they come about and how effectively are they being met? Discuss

    "In conclusion, the radical overhaul of the YJS has led to a number of aims, all of which have to adhere to the principle aim of preventing offending. Overall, it appears these aims are effectively being met. YO are now more likely to receive an intervention when they first offend, and the time taken from arrest to sentence has dramatically reduced. In addition, prevention schemes appear effective and adequately funded, and many of the new alternatives to custodial sentences, most notably ISSP's, are making a positive impact. Most importantly, the YJB sets a clear national framework and Yots seem to successfully co-ordinate and deliver services to YO and the courts. Whilst more could be done to help reform the youth courts, the changes so far appear effective. In regards to custodial sentences, it appears that although DTO's can be effective, the programmes required to help YO are often not provided and the transition back into the community is not as good as it could be. Furthermore large numbers of YO are still being remanded into custody and the aim of increasing public awareness and confidence in the YJS is not being met. It also appears that the discrepancies regarding both gender and ethnicity need to be addressed by the YJS."

  • Examine the extent to which the media can be said to inform and misinform us about the nature and extent of crime.

    "To conclude, this essay showed how media inform and misinform people about the nature and extent of crimes and examined how newspapers represent domestic violence crimes. To resume, media do inform people about crimes, but because of need to earn money they use sensationalism and selective reporting which present a distorted and inaccurate view of crimes. Moreover evidence show that newspapers try to break the public silence around domestic violence cases but unfortunately they lack professionalism and broader understanding what is domestic violence. That's why many newspapers draw inaccurate, incomplete and potentially misleading picture of domestic violence fatalities."

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