"If one accepts that it is through close conditioning that a women learns to conform, and that it is this close supervision w
"If one accepts that it is through close conditioning that a women learns to conform, and that it is this close supervision which prevents criminality, then any lessening of the control would lead to increased criminality" (Williams 2004, pp. 469-70) Introduction In a direct response to the quotation, the essay will attempt to identify a possible causal link between the development of the modern 'women's movement' and an assumed increase in female criminality. The discourse and debates within the discipline will be evaluated to determine if there has been an increased female criminality since the 1960's. The assessment will further be improved by analogy of criminal statistics prior and post manumission and collate those findings to current statistical data. Other suggested alternative explanations, social forces such as 'marginalisation' and the possible changing attitudes of law enforcement agencies in regards to the processing of female offenders will also be considered. In regards to the ensuing impact of a feminist critique, the creation of various strands of feminist theory will be outlined and defined within the appendix because of the wordage constraint. 'Malestream' Criminology Historically, to a large extent, Criminology through facilitation of its meta- narratives has been perceived as failing to provide valid explanations and empirical research in relation to
What are the myths and realities of domestic violence? Domestic violence is a classless, worldwide and multicultural occurrence, yet it is hidden in a shroud of mystery. If such occurrences happen in the public eye, the majority of people either choose to ignore it, as they would rather not get involved. It is as it states 'domestic' that is between the two partners and nobody else. It was not until the 1970's that the feminist movement and other researchers took the task in hand and found some damaging reports. There are many facets that construed domestic violence, and it affects many different people in a variety of ways, from all different backgrounds such as children, elderly, and homosexuals and the general public. The cost for placing people in safe homes, court proceedings and counselling is immensely high especially due to the amount of people in need of such services. The issues that this piece will discuss are the true definitions, (what domestic violence actually consists of) male dominance, reasons for staying with violence, and whom it affects (concentrating on men and women). Over the years the exposure that domestic violence has had has affected the way in which it is viewed. Everyone has formed their own personal opinions on what the term domestic violence is for them and it has been the task of numerous agencies (WHO, Home Office, Police Authorities,
Human Rights and Civil Liberties Law 112 Assignment Two ~ Table of Cases * Hirst v United Kingdom (No.2)ECHR 122 * R v Hull Prison Board of Visitors, ex parte St Germain  1 QB 425 * R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte leech  QB,  4 ALL ER 539, CA * Raymond v Honey  1 AC 1,  1 ALL ER 756, HL Table of Statutes * Human Rights Act 1998 Elizabeth II HMSO * The Representation of the People Act 2000 Elizabeth II HMSO section 3 Should a prisoner have rights? Well to answer this question we must first identify what a right is. A right can be defined as a power or privilege to which one is justly entitled or it can be described as something that is due to a person by law, tradition or nature1. In addition to this human rights are described as those rights that are regarded as fundamental or basic to an individual2. The next step to answering this question is to identify what human rights are guaranteed to every member of society. To do this we must look to the European Convention on Human Rights as well as the Human Rights Act 19983. The European Convention on Human Rights was drafted due to the violence of the Second World War in order to remind member states of the heritage of political traditions and ideals, but most importantly to enforce certain rights stated in the Universal Declaration of Human
In my essay I will attempt to describe Mills concept The Sociological Imagination and common-sense explanation and use the main ideas and differences between sociological imagination and common-sense to analyse the topic of racism in UK.
We live in a regime which promotes the ideas of egalitarianism. An egalitarian favours equality of some sort: People should get the same, or be treated the same, or be treated as equals, in some respect. Egalitarian doctrines tend to express the idea that all human persons are equal in fundamental worth or moral status (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002) but in reality equality, especially racial equality is a huge farce. In my essay I will attempt to describe Mills concept "The Sociological Imagination" and common-sense explanation and use the main ideas and differences between sociological imagination and common-sense to analyse the topic of racism in UK. Sociological imagination - what is it? The term Sociological imagination was coined by a colourful and controversial New York's Columbia's university professor C. Wright Mills. The sociological imagination is the ability to see the interrelationships between biography and history, or the connections between our individual lives and larger social forces at work shaping our lives (K. Brown, 2005). One of the primary goals and main benefits of sociological imagination are to help to develop the ability to participate in social life and then step back and analyze broader meanings of what is going on in the world around us and finally to allow us to look at your own society as though you were an outsider. Mills
The National Probation Service is an organisation within the criminal justice system that works with offenders on and before their release from prison.
The National Probation Service is an organisation within the criminal justice system that works with offenders on and before their release from prison and also as a monitoring service for offenders who have not been given a custodial sentence. The roots of the probation service go back to the nineteenth century where clergy members took responsibility for young offenders to prevent them entering the prison system. Many changes have been made over the years, moving from the 'advise, assist and befriend' notion to the present day position of enforcement. By definition, a very punitive minded member of the public is one who believes in punishment for the offender: prison sentences for all, and therefore would be opposed to the concept of non-custodial sentences and the work of the probation service. Where do these views come from and how can the role of the probation service be best described to enforce its role in society to the punitive minded? Two recent surveys carried out indicate that most members of the public simply do not understand the role of the probation service. In September 2002, MORI conducted a research study on behalf of the probation service to seek better understanding of awareness and perceptions of the general public. A total of one thousand people were interviewed over the telephone and a further 635 face to face. The sample included ethnic minorities.
Does the UK have a gang problem? Justify your answer. To answer the question concerning the United Kingdom and its assumed problem with gangs, one must first look at what it is that constitutes a gang; who is involved in a gang; and what are the characteristics of a gang. It is a necessity to know who it is we refer to when we talk about a 'gang' and whether the meaning is extensive and incorporates all groups and sub-cultures. In this essay, the gang shall mean a select number of people who are involved in organised criminal activity with an intrinsic level of hierarchy that contains it own codes of honour and behaviour1. It shall not refer to a group of young people who wear 'hoodies' and hang around on street corners acting in an anti-social manner. The gang is much more then a group of youths hanging around together due to their similarities in interests, schools, homes or music. The gang is made up of a higher level of criminality whereby initiation ceremonies, member ranks, and organisation is of the upmost importance. This type of gang incorporates the highly organised criminal aspects of white collar crime with the conflict and violent characteristics that are associated with street gangs. This can be traced back and paralleled with the Kray brothers of fifty years ago indicating that the problem of the gang is not a new phenomenon. To categorise groups of
Three levels of law. There are three major legislative and judicial jurisdictions that exist in the United States. The three major law agencies are Federal, State, and Local. Each of these has created a variety of police agencies to enforce laws.
Three Levels of Law Richard Cohn The American law enforcement system has been called the most complex in the world. There are three major legislative and judicial jurisdictions that exist in the United States. The three major law agencies are Federal, State, and Local. Each of these has created a variety of police agencies to enforce laws. The Federal Bureau of Investigation is one of the most famous law enforcement agencies in the United States, and in the world. The Federal Bureau of Investigation is a federal agency which is a United States Government agency, or office, whose primary functional responsibility is to enforce federal criminal laws. The official purpose of today's Federal Bureau of Investigation is stated in their agencies mission statement, "The mission of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is to protect and defend the United States against terrorist and foreign intelligence threats, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners".1 In the late nineteenth or early twentieth century, most state police agencies were created to meet specific needs. One of the most well known agencies was the Texas Rangers, who were created in 1835. Before Texas attained statehood and functioned as a military organization that was
"Women's imprisonment in England and Wales at the end of the twentieth Century is: Excessively punitive; totally inappropriate to the needs of women being sent to prison; and ripe for abolition in its present form"(Carlen 1998)
"Women's imprisonment in England and Wales at the end of the twentieth Century is: Excessively punitive; totally inappropriate to the needs of women being sent to prison; and ripe for abolition in its present form" (Carlen 1998) Prison is inappropriate to the needs of women. There is a need for women prisoners to be regarded differently to their male counterparts due to their roles, reactions and stress caused as a result of the separation from their children. This is an important area to address as it is a very real and immanent problem for nearly two thirds of incarcerated women 1. This is exasperated further by the fact that only one quarter of these children are looked after by their father or their mothers current partner (HM Chief Inspector of Prisons 1997). These is a contrasting picture to that which faces imprisoned fathers as 90 per cent of these and have the peace of mind that their children are being looked after by their mothers or by their current partner (HM Chief Inspector of Prisons 1997). This highlights the plight of incarcerated mothers whose concern is not only with separation with her children but also with how they will be cared for (Ward and Kaussebaum 1965) and one of the many differences between incarcerating women as oppose to men. The evidence shows that just because women are imprisoned it does not necessarily mean that they disregard
'FRAUD PRESENTS A UNIQUE CHALLENGE TO CRIMINOLOGISTS' ATTEMPTS TO EXPLAIN THE CAUSES OF CRIME.' DISCUSS IN RELATION TO AT LEAST ONE MAJOR CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY This paper will discuss how the issue of fraud presents a unique challenge to criminologists' attempts to explain the causes of crime. It will examine issues surrounding the criminological research into fraud and discuss relevant theories, including the motivational behaviour of offenders. It will conclude that fraud does not lend itself well to a universal criminological theory due to its wide ranging and hidden nature, complicated legal position and spread of offender types and motivations. However, further criminological research is justified to study the behaviour exhibited and its cost to society. The focus of existing criminological research relevant to fraud has revolved around the term 'white collar crime' and its acts and actors. This is because they share many characteristics and can be classified as "economic offences committed through the use of some combination of fraud, deception or collusion" (Weisburd et al. 1991, cited by Smith, 2007a, p. 11), as well as an element of the betrayal of trust. The term white collar crime has itself caused debate, with various ambiguous definitions attempting to encompass crimes relating to the employment or occupation of individuals. The term was originated by
The Aim of criminology is to speak truth to power' Debate the extent to which criminology is able to achieve this. "Truth is to be understood as a system of ordered procedures for the production, regulation, distribution, circulation, and operation of statements. Truth is linked in a circular relation with systems of power that produce and sustain it - a regime of truth. This regime of truth is not merely ideological or superstructural; it was a condition of the formation of capitalism. The problem is not changing people's consciousness - or what is in their heads - but the political economic, institutional regime of the production of truth...but of detaching the power of truth from the forms of hegemony, social, political, economic and cultural, within which it operates at the present time. (Foucault, cited in Faubion, 2000, p.132). In order to debate the extent to which criminological knowledge is able to speak truth to power, it is first necessary to deconstruct the interrelated concepts of knowledge, truth and power. A useful starting point would be to determine a basic definition of criminological knowledge. Garland (1994, p.27) describes academic criminology as "...a body of accredited and systematically transmitted forms of knowledge, approved procedures and techniques of investigation..." and that these forms of knowledge operate within particular institutional