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University Degree: Criminology
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(Alaszewski & Manthorpe 1991). My own definition of risk is making decisions that you know will have either a negative or positive outcome therefore risk assessment is calculating the negatives and positives and trying to assess which is better, on doing this you should have the best result of that decision. In order to evaluate risk we need to determine the hazards that are more likely to cause the greatest harm and therefore hopefully control these hazards. In order to evaluate these hazards we need to consider the likelihood and the severity of the hazard.
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Choose two criminological theories and critically assess their usefulness in enhancing our understanding of one of the following (a) youth crime (b) gender and crime or (c) race(TM) and crime.(TM)
One of the first theorists to develop this concept was an Italian prison psychiatrist called Cesare Lombroso. His ideas where very much influenced by the work of Charles Darwin, 'survival of the fittest', the evolution theory. This evolution theory is cited in the book, The Basics, Criminology by Sandra Walklate, "Every organism re-visits the development of its own species within its own developmental history" Walklate (2005:9) Lombroso study therefore is about how the human species goes through development stages before the final phase is reached, humanoid stage. However sometimes there are exceptions from abnormalities and the final stage is not fully developed.
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When we communicate, 38% of the information is passed in the tone and pitch of the voice, the spoken word, actually only counts for 7%. It is with the remaining 55% where the main interest lies, through the medium of facial expression/body language. It is with these facts that the Ekman's laboratory study addresses these variables in the pursuance of investigating Can they be used to detect deception? Design Briefly describe the design of the study. The study was a within participants correlation study, to determine if different occupational groups through experience could accurately detect deception and what cues were interpretated, to catch out liars.
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Theoretically a biometric database protects society from identity fraud and theft. However, no computer system is completely secure, the information is secure only so long as the people that have access to the data are not corrupt and do not discuss the biometric technology outside of work. Furthermore, the government would need to have access to such a system to change information for undercover operatives as well as people in the witness protection program. If the government has access to the biometric database then hackers have access to this program as well.
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The analysis is based on a review of evidence from the crime scene and from witnesses and victims. This analysis is done from both an investigative and a behavioral perspective. Development of a Criminal Profile According to Bartol (2004), The criminal profiling process attempts to predict who the offender(s) may be, where the crime was committed and how the next crime may occur, while attempting to predict the demographic, geographic, and psychological features of the offender; simultaneously, it strives to achieve the most important purpose, which is to eliminate large segments of the population from further investigation in order to focus specifically on those who fit the profile.
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These problems effect adulthood with restricted employment opportunities, relationship difficulties, criminal activity and increase the risk of general psycho pathology (Fergusson et al, 1993, 1994; Hinshaw, 1992; McMahon & Wells, 1998; Robins & Price, 1991; Rutter, 1989). Childhood conduct problems are associated with substantial long term costs for the individual, affecting multiple areas of functioning throughout a major portion of the life span. Conduct problems are also associated with high use of clinical, educational, welfare and justice services. An estimated one-third to one-half of referrals to child and adolescent mental health services are for identified conduct problems.
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Whilst they enjoyed quite a favourable attention, the same cannot be said about the parish constables. However, as Newburn argues, although portrayed by Shakespeare as "incompetent, lazy and ignorant"2, we need to remember that their office was unpaid, and they often found themselves in conflict, torn between their duties, and maintaining a good relationship with the community of people who were their neighbours. Also, Kent (1986), in her very detailed study of the constable of that period, praised them very highly for their "time, effort, and even financial sacrifice that was expected and so often given"3.
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Discuss the historical justifications for using torture in western culture, and its impact on crime, criminals, sin and guilt. Why are some (but not all) such practices now considered to violate human rights?
Examples of torture used by Western perpetrators can be either psychological or physical and include: shaming, public humiliation (e.g. being displayed naked), lengthy interrogation, exploitation of phobias including mock executions, extended sleep deprivation, extended solitary confinement, sensor deprivation, tooth extraction, beatings and physical violence, blinding light, boiling, bone breaking, castration, drowning including waterboarding and so on. Bone-breaking was used in medieval times to extract information or a confession of treason or adultery. This tended to be successful in obtaining a confession, although it is difficult to establish how dependable any information gained under duress might have been.
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The first steps taken towards a system that catered for Juvenile justice were the Welfare system in the 1960s. (O'Connor, I. 1997 Pg: 3) The system prevented children from being persecuted by the adult courts, and formed a separate legal regime for the young offenders. The purpose of this separation was to segregate child offenders from their adult counter parts with the intention of reducing criminality and re-offending rates through removing children from 'criminal influences'. (Pratt, J 1993 Pg: 40) The problem with the welfare system lies in both its merit and its lack of foresight. The presumption that the welfare of a child's family background often lead to criminality and social delinquency soon resulted in an exodus of children from their families.
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There were problems in this theory as it has an overly rational, generalising view of human nature believing that individuals behave in a purely selfish and socially unconcerned manner, not taking into account personal circumstances (Carrabine et al, 2004:35). Following the Classicists was the Positivist movement headed by Lombroso's theory of the Criminal man, a biological and psychological approach to criminology, where criminals were atavistic throwbacks to a form of species earlier on the evolutionary scale (Carrabine et al, 2004:36).
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Lombroso and Ferrero, (1885) said, "...natural passivity of women deprived them of the initiative to break the law". Although he was discredited, the lack of crimes committed by females meant that his work continued to exert influence long afterwards. Thomas (1907) held similar views to those of Lombroso, he also argued that women are emotional and require the need to give and receive - hence prostitution. This study also marked the beginning of criminologists looking at what impact feminism can have in the study of criminology.
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Who are ethnic? Someone who is said to belong to an 'ethnic minority' is therefore anyone who would tick any box other than 'White British' box in response to an ethnicity question on a census form. This means that, across England and Wales, 12.5% of the population are ethnic minorities, according to the 2001 census. (www.cre.gov.uk) Most people are not aware that gypsies and Irish travellers are apart of the ethnic group within the UK but they form part of this group along with Afro-Caribbean, Bangladeshis, Black Africans, Pakistanis, Chinese and others What is social exclusion?
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The 1987 Federal Sentencing Guidelines and mandatory minimum sentencing laws in most states are also very tough on repeaters. The government may be justified in punishing a repeat offender more severely than a first offender, but "Three Strikes" laws are overkill. Secondly, "Three Strikes" laws could lead to an increase in violence. Many law enforcement professionals oppose the "Three Strikes" law out of fear such laws would spur a dramatic increase in violence against police, corrections officers and the public. A criminal facing the prospect of a mandatory life sentence will be far more likely to resist arrest, to kill witnesses or to attempt a prison escape.
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Modern criminology initially began with the positivist approach of an Italian physician Cesare Lombroso. Lombroso explored what he believed was physically distinctive feature of criminal. Lombroso concluded that appearances were the cause and that criminals are likely to have funny ears, a flattened face, fleshy lips, receding jaw and long arms. Appearances are not a good biological explanation in study of crime because no one can help how they appear. Charles Goring contested Lombroso and his explanation of crime causation proving his theory deficient but his emphasis on collection of data to test the hypotheses about criminals became the basis of modern criminology (Lombroso, 1911).
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Getting tough method is not only to blame in increase of prison population but custodial sentence is the most serious punishment British courts can impose ever since the elimination of death penalty in 1965. But increasing prison population leads to asking, 'are prisons like a series of wastepaper baskets into which you can simply toss somebody and not hear from them again' (Lord Woolf 2006) or to help them reform. Since 1999 re-offending by prisoners has increased from 58 to 67 percent.
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It wasn't long till somebody was put into the frame for the abduction and murder of Sarah Payne. Whiting was brought into custody and questioned about the disappearance of Sarah Payne. The cornfield of where she disappeared was only a matter of 5 miles away from Whiting flat. When they were questioning him they found out that he had been put on the sex offenders list and were suspicious of his lack of concern/ sympathy for the abduction/murder of Sarah Payne.
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Is "greed" the explanation for both professional and corporate crime? If not, what else do we have to consider? Can we apply traditional criminological theories to our understanding of white-collar crime?
and "white-collar crime (1949), all of which is still highly regarded today and seen by some as controversial. Many criminological theories suggest that an individuals motive for committing crimes are due to class and suggest that the lower classes commit crime in an attempt to better themselves or to simply survive. However, theories with this general overview cannot explain why it is that people who are already in positions of high status and are generally "well off" for money would risk it all to commit white-collar crime. Clinard and Yeager agree or at least suggest that greed is the explanation for most professional and corporate cries but although I can understand why they may believe this to be the case I can not completely agree with them.
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Has the liberation of women after the feminist movement affected the deviousness and criminality of women in society and if not, what has?
The critique within feminism as an ideology involves the discrimination and injustices suffered by women in existing society. (Leech, 1996, pg 231.) There is no one single feminist perspective. Liberal feminists are a branch of feminists that argue that gender equality can be achieved without challenging men as a group or changing basic economic and political arrangements such as capitalism. (Leech, 1996, pg 223). Other feminists claim that liberal feminism fails to understand women's true interests and cannot provide a strategy for their liberation ( Eatwell and Wright, 1993, pg 201) there are also Marxist/socialist feminists who unlike the liberal feminists see a contradiction between women and achieving civil and political rights.
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Rape myths? Discuss the contention that rape is not about sex but rather about violence.Criminal Code Act 1995, SECT 268.14 Crimes against Humanity.
Rape is rarely committed for sexual purposes. Rape is about power and domination. A rape myth as described by Burt in 1980, who also developed the rape myth acceptance scale (RMA), is that myths are, "prejudicial, stereotyped or false beliefs about rape, rape victims and rapists". (Burt, 1980) Lonsway and Fitzgerald defined rape myths as, "attitudes and beliefs that are generally false but are widely and persistently held, and that serve to deny and justify male sexual aggression against women." (1994). this latter description amplifies what feminists have argued. The first myth that will be analysed is victim masochism, which is the belief that the victim either enjoyed or wanted to be attacked.
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Female Criminality Criminology has predominantly been the study of men by men and many of the theories of crime fail to explain female offending and
This 'patriarchal' control carries on throughout life, with the role of women being more constrained than that of males. It has also been argued crimes committed by women seem to be of comparatively trivial nature and may be considered as unworthy of research. Figure 1: Offenders as a percentage of the population: by age, National crime Statistics (2000), England & Wales Figure 1 shows the percentage of male and female offenders of the population in England and Wales during 2000. The statistics reveal that men do commit far more crime than women. Recording of female Offences In 2002 male offenders in England and Wales outnumbered female offenders by more than four to one.
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The order is generally seen as a very effective alternative to imprisonment. The community rehabilitation order is less of a punishment order and more of a getting back on track order. The offender is supervised by a probation officer who devises an action plan for the offender, if the offender fails to take a keen interest in it or fails to attend a meeting with the officer then he or she can alert the court who will re-sentence. It offers a push towards getting a job which is seen as very helpful for the rehabilitation of offenders.
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"Walklate (1998: vi) suggests Feminism and Criminology may be contradictions in terms. To what extent do you agree with her?
In any discussion of the relationship between feminism and criminology it is important to recognise the complexities in their relationship. There is no one feminism and no one criminology. "Different schools of thought within the sphere of feminism have developed out of different political and theoretical traditions. Central to all feminist criminology is the commitment to ending sex-based discrimination in society towards women" (source adapted from Tierney, 1996:163). There are feminists who have made a strong case for abandoning criminology (Smart, 1990), or who, because of resistance to a feminist transformation of the discipline of criminology, see fundamental incompatibilities between feminism and criminology (Stanko, 1993; A.
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(Eaton 1986) together with the small numbers of women who do become involved with the criminal justice system, has led to the study of women and crime being generally disregarded as a sociological problem, dominant criminological theories were based on men, and little attention had been paid either to the deviance (including crime) or the apparent conformity of women. To see how accurate this statement by Eaton is, it is necessary to examine the issues that have dominated criminology since it became a subject in its own right.
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The Probation Service has been described as a law enforcement agency. Explain this term and identify features of probation practice that support or negate this notion.
The NPS takes on the supervision of approximately 175,000 offenders who complete up to eight million hours of unpaid work in the community a year. Before applying 'Law Enforcement' to probation practice, it is important to understand the terms 'law' and 'enforcement' as two separate entities brought together in protecting the public. The term 'law' can be described as a set of standards or social rules established by a governing authority to prescribe what is "usual, expected and permissible way of doing things..."
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When someone is under parole they have been released from prison. This means that the two officers work with different types of criminals. Probation officers will deal with criminals who have mostly done a minor infraction or people awaiting trial, where as parole officers tend to deal with more severe offenses which required incarceration. In many states these two position are combined into one. An officer will work with either adults or juveniles. Probation officers work with the courts doing background investigations, presentence reports, rehabilitation recommendations and sentencing recommendations. Sentencing recommendations are reviewed with the offender before being submitted to the court. In some situations the officer may need to testify.
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