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University Degree: Criminology

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  1. Compare and Contrast 'reactive' and 'proactive' approaches to police investigation and to determine whether there are any potential ethical or legal problems in adopting a proactive approach.

    This may result in conviction or may not depending on the information and evidence found by the police if undertook the investigation, which would have been undertaken depending on the seriousness of the crime. If the result is not conviction then a warning may be issued instead or no formal warning whatsoever. An example of when police have undertaken reactive policing was in the case of Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman where they were reported missing by their parents and the police reacted to the call and undertook an investigation into their disappearance.

    • Word count: 1525
  2. To what extent to physiological factors explain why people become criminals?

    He originally suggested that criminals were "born not made". He was however criticised for his methods. Lambroso only looked at convicted criminals already in prison during his research but never made comparisons with non-criminals or even non-convicted criminals, so he had no control group to back up his findings against. It has also been suggested that he confused criminality (the study of criminals) with psychopathology (the study of people with severe mental disorders, who commit violent crimes). He has however also been praised with the fact that he started people looking into the reasons of why people become criminals at all.

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  3. In a publicised home office research, 85% of offenders say that they have recently used drugs. What is the connection between drugs and crime? If drugs use is reduced, will the crime rate go down?

    There is a very fine line that divides normal and abnormal drug use, and this will vary across societies. Alcohol can be encouraged in some cultures, but prohibited in others. In countries such as Dubai, alcohol is illegal, and being caught drinking by the police anywhere other than a licensed bar can be severely punished. Also, using drugs to treat an illness is seen as perfectly normal, while using the same drugs for non-medical purposes is seen as abnormal. Drugs become a problem when 'misuse' or 'abuse' of a drug starts. For example excessive drinking is associated with abuse, as is the use of illegal drugs.

    • Word count: 1958
  4. Explain the dynamics of rape with reference to victims, offenders, motivations and other factors.

    Rape is an exceedingly traumatic experience for most women; victims have been found to suffer persistent effects for many years afterwards (Burgess & Holstrom, 1974; Morgan & Zedner, 1992). Post-traumatic stress disorder is more likely to develop following rape than from any other trauma (National Victim Centre, 1992). Date rape or acquaintance rape is traditionally thought to be less traumatic than "real" rape but it has been shown that these victims' show the same psychological stress as other rape victims (Coss & Cook, 1993).

    • Word count: 1588
  5. Examine the relationship between crime and culture in contemporary British society. This essay is going to focus on the topics of media and crime and crimes of the powerful.

    Nowadays, British people are more cosmopolitan and they have spread all over the world. However, in big capital cities just London, someone can meet a mixture of cultures and societies, which is mostly consisted by working immigrants. The immigration of people from different places of different cultures contributed to the fading of contemporary British society. Resulting, it leads to the diversion of British society as the culture for instance in London is changing. On the other hand, the different cultures are connected also with different types and reasons of crime. For instance, in the UK a new hypothesis of cultural version is developed, which leads to political and strategical changes that recently occurred.

    • Word count: 1740
  6. Does the media affect people's fear of crime?

    state that ?the mass media and interpersonal communications are obvious sources of second hand information about crime. They say that it seems unlikely that people?s representations of risk stem from their own personal, first-hand experience of criminal incidents. By contrast, according to Lee and Farrall, a good deal of research suggests that hearing about events (via the mass media) plays a stronger role in raising the public?s fears of crime?. Lee (2007:187) says that when it comes to news coverage there is little doubt that the old adage of ?if it bleeds it leads? remains largely accurate.

    • Word count: 1288
  7. Biography of Durkheim and his contribution to criminological thought-

    and sciences in (1875). After leaving Epinal he left for Paris to attend Ecole and despite his unfortunate, constant fear of failure, which overwhelmed him throughout life. He was soon an advocate of the republican cause; he also reserved special praise for Leon Gambetta, ?the brilliant orator and spiritual embodiment of the third republic? (Jones, R.A, 1986). After passing his exams Durkheim eventually began teaching philosophy in 1882. Durkheim also wrote articles mainly on German philosophy and ?social science?. These had received acknowledgment from Louis lizard, director of higher education in France, also a devoted republican.

    • Word count: 1363
  8. With reference to gender, discuss the possible relationship between offending, victimisation and treatment within the criminal justice process.

    is that there are many different versions of feminism. [2] Feminist theories have just recently been developed in criminology but have challenged the views of traditional criminology. When it comes to committing crime females are seen as more vulnerable than men so most women would therefore get away with a caution: Feminist criminology contains many branches. Liberal, radical, Marxist, and socialist feminism are widely recognized, although other "strands" exist such as postmodernism and ecofeminism. Most feminist criminology involves critiques about how women offenders have been ignored, distorted, or stereotyped within traditional criminology, but there is no shortage of separate theories and modifications of existing theories.

    • Word count: 1870
  9. Is Police Brutality Ever Justified?

    Supporters of police brutality may perhaps take the same stance as the consequentialists. Consequentialism is the ethical view that ?morality is all about producing the right kinds of overall consequences.? (Haines, 2006) In other words, the ends justify the means resulting in the Dirty Harry dilemma where the objective is good but the actions may require dirty work. Ethical altruists will argue that an individual should take an action that would benefit everyone instead of themselves. How do these philosophies relate to police brutality? Consider for example interrogation. The primary goal of police interrogations is to obtain a confession about a crime.

    • Word count: 1241
  10. How are legal and illegal opium markets affected by global relations?

    In the 1700?s Britain was importing opium into China from its colonies in India. The numbers of opium users and addiction was increasing rapidly and had become so vast that the Chinese emperor banned its import but despite the prohibition and Britain finding it unfair and against free trade principles, continued to supply. This continuation resulted in the opium wars forcing China to allow the importation of opium. . (The Open University, 2009(b)). Many decades on the British government, with Tony Blair as prime minister, used the Chinese emperor?s previous views to validate the military action in Afghanistan and to destroy of Afghanistan opium crops.

    • Word count: 1517
  11. Marijuana Legalization. The first and most basic reason that marijuana should be legal is that there is no good reason for it not to be legal

    From a philosophical point of view, individuals deserve the right to make choices for themselves. The government only has a right to limit those choices if the individual's actions endanger someone else. This does not apply to marijuana, since the individual who chooses to use marijuana does so according to his or her own free will. The government also may have a right to limit individual actions if the actions pose a significant threat to the individual. But this argument does not logically apply to marijuana because marijuana is far less dangerous than some drugs which are legal, such as alcohol and tobacco.

    • Word count: 1184
  12. Diploma in Criminology Assignment . Is youth crime a problem in your area? If so what do you consider may be contributing factors?

    Many children may have been living in many different foster homes or in hostels from a young and when they become teenagers they feel angry, lonely and let down resulting in them becoming criminals. Task 16. Discuss the role in the community in supporting youths and preventing youth crime. There are several different roles in my community that are in place to support youths and prevent youth crime. A major role is set within the Police Service who train their officers and show the public how they work with all children and young people.

    • Word count: 1592
  13. Discuss the key features and changes in the history of crime and punishment in the UK

    Hanging was seen as the best option, so much so that around 75,000 people were thought to have been executed in this manner between the year of 1530 and 1630. There were other types of punishments including fines, the use of the stocks/pillory, boiling alive, and forfeiture of land or property. These would be used for petty crimes; there was no obvious punishment structure so punishments were handed out according to what was thought to be best. It was thought that if punishments were carried out publicly, it would be seen as a deterrent for others.

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  14. To have an in-depth understanding social justice we need different types of evidence. Discuss.

    ??We are looking at social divides far more important than those reflected merely by income?.poverty and wealth are fundamentally about being excluded from society or included in it? (Dorling et al, in John Clarke, pg: 38). When the Dorling Study looked at the distribution of wealth as well as income it reported that income inequalities grew rapidly in the UK in the late twentieth century, and that geographical areas are increasingly dominated by wealthy or poor residents with a decline in social mixing (John Clarke, pg: 38).

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  15. The ultimate goal in the fight against domestic violence should be to provide the ground work to stop the abuse before it begins.

    Educating society as a whole also is a very important key to ending domestic violence this is accomplished through changes in public policy and practices Only recently, within the past twenty-five years, has been the issue of domestic violence been ?brought into the open as a field of concern and study? (Violence against Women in the Family) The Domestic Violence Movements main focus is to improve the treatment of victims and make laws accountable for the act. Much tougher laws are needed since most abusers are given a slap on the wrist, it gives them and other people like them,

    • Word count: 1356
  16. Decriminalising Marijuana: Social and Legal Implications

    Prohibition laws and their enforcement carry a significant cost to society. While there are likely to be many social costs associated with cannabis prohibition, they may be difficult to quantify.[4] One concern which may be noted, however, is the harm caused to those convicted in jurisdictions where possession or personal use of cannabis are criminal offences. The penalties may be severe, ranging from prison sentences to heavy fines, and while it may be argued that prison sentences for minor cannabis offences are rare, a cannabis user may still receive a criminal record which will stay with them indefinitely, negatively affecting

    • Word count: 1930

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