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University Degree: Criminology

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  1. PRISONS: AMERICAS CRIMINAL WAREHOUSES. Recent budget crises and the rapid increase of incarceration rates are forcing states to re-examine the effectiveness and efficiency of their jail systems. It is clear that it is time to move away from a mod

    California and Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger 3. Most inmates commit nonviolent crimes F. Prison Spending 1. 50 billion dollars being spent a year on prisons 2. The third-largest state expenditure Away from the mainstream concerns of the American people, an ignored issue is draining billions of dollars the United States' yearly budget. Prisons across the country act as warehouses for millions of the nation's criminals, more than half of which will be returning to prison after three years of being released. Recent budget crises and the rapid increase of incarceration rates are forcing states to re-examine the effectiveness and efficiency of their jail systems.

    • Word count: 2552
  2. The Threat of Nuclear, Biological or Chemical Weapons and Terrorism.

    The Aum Shinrikyo attack demonstrates the unpredictable nature of chemical weapons and problematic issues of dissemination. Nuclear Weapons in the work place Since 1951 there have been 67,500 nuclear missiles built, with an estimated construction cost for more than 1,000 ICBM launch pads and silos and support facilities form 1957-1965 running nearly $14,000,000,000. A nuclear weapon is another way to cause an explosion. The heat and blast of a nuclear explosion are similar to those of conventional weapons, but they are much more powerful. Nuclear weapons produce deadly gamma radiation that other weapons do not. When a nuclear weapon is detonated, there is a bright flash of light brighter than the sun itself, followed by the formation of the atomic fireball.

    • Word count: 2031
  3. Restorative justice is currently hailed as a progressive way to deal with young offenders. But what are the hidden pitfalls of using this approach?

    The goal, as it was designed and as it has borne out, is to make the community a safer, more whole place through a commonly experienced 'healing' process. When a crime is committed, the entire community suffers. It does not matter where they live, people are at least momentarily devastated and probably forever changed by the news of violent crime. Therefore it's important to restore a sense of social wellbeing, and justice, in the community as a whole. Often, it is argued that tougher sentences should be introduced, however there is no evidence that these measures reduce levels of offending, and in many cases they do little if anything for the victims of crime.

    • Word count: 2257
  4. Gun Control. In this paper, the author will discuss the magnitude of gun control regulation its implementation; and the impact it has on American culture and values. For the sake of argument, guns are not criminals, people who use guns are; and

    In the case of the District of Columbia v. Heller, the majority found the provision in the D.C. law requiring licenses for guns carried only in the home to be unconstitutional. Under the statute, handguns stored in the home require disassembly, or with a trigger lock be disabled. The court ruled that the storage procedures violated a handgun owners' Second Amendment rights because such a stored gun is not functional. The case marked the first time in decades that a case interpreting the Second Amendment was heard, and the decision maintained the high court's long-held position that the Second Amendment grants individuals the right to keep and bear arms (Brown, 2008).

    • Word count: 2178
  5. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the accuracy of the difference between civil and criminal sanctions is that the former are designed to compensate and the latter are designed to punish This essay will draw on examples of both civil and crimin

    Lim Poh Choo v Camden and Islington Area Health Authority, Court of Appeal, Civil Division. Dr Lim Poh Choo was a senior psychiatric registrar when she needed to have minor gynaecological surgery. Following the operation, Dr Lim Poh Choo suffered a cardiac arrest due to somebody's failure. The health authority is responsible for this. As a result of the cardiac arrest, Dr Lim Poh Choo was in a coma, following the coma she could not walk or talk. She now has brain damage, has lack of coordination in all four limbs, she's depressed and withdrawn and has difficulty speaking.

    • Word count: 2088
  6. The History and Development of Forensic Science

    DNA Typing2 was introduced in the 1980's and revolutionised forensic science. Dr Alec Jeffreys first described DNA typing in 1985 and this development in forensic science allowed the police and law enforcement agencies to be able to match perpetrators of a crime to the victim or crime scene. Due to this substantial development it has closed thousands of unsolved crimes, convicting those from crimes they otherwise would have got away with and also freeing innocent people who had not committed the crimes they had been punished for like in the case of Stefan Kiszko.3 The first case this was used

    • Word count: 2735
  7. The Effect of Line-up Instructions on Eyewitness Response.

    Many professionals have argued pejoratively, that it can be one of the most unreliable sources of evidence available to the justice system as it has been the result of many mistaken identifications and convictions (Loftus, 1974). As eyewitness identification of a suspect from line-ups and photo-spreads is continued to be accepted as vital direct evidence in the court of law, growing concerns among researchers, in their belief that it is open to error, promotes further investigation (Wells & Loftus, 1987).

    • Word count: 2394
  8. Street Gangs. This essay will discuss the response to street gangs within the United States of America. I will define a street gang; how street gangs are formed, and what they consist of. This essay will discuss theories such as; Cohens (1955)

    According to Thrasher,(1936) groups originally formed spontaneously, intergraded through conflict and are characterized by the following types of behavior: meeting face to face, movements within locality individually or collectively that incorporate, and conflict organized criminal planning. Although, it may be believed that there is not one clear definition in the explanation of what is a 'street gang', however, one example is provided by the California Penal Code, (2008) within Dangerous Weapons Control Law, which states; "any organization, association or group of three or more persons whether formal or informal, which has common name, identifying sign or symbol, where members individually

    • Word count: 2049
  9. Examine the key debates surrounding the relationship between crime and inequality

    which stated that 67% of the UK prison population had been unemployed in the four weeks before their imprisonment, compared with just 5% of the general population. Another example of data that supports the idea of high unemployment being linked with higher crime rates is the official crime statistics from the 1970's to 90's. From 1979-92, official crime rates doubled, with the steepest increase being a 40% rise from 1989-92 (Downes, 1995, p. 1). During this period of time, national unemployment varied from 13.7% in 1986, 7.5% in 1990 and then peaking at 14% in 1993 (Witt, Clarke, & Field, 1999, p.

    • Word count: 2195
  10. Criminological Theory: Explaining Crime. This essay will look at how the subcultural theories and control theories try to explain why some people commit the specific crimes of shoplifting and theft offences other than burglary.

    One set of theories that attempts to explain criminality are the subcultural theories. One of the first subcultural theories was Albert Cohen's (1955) theory of delinquency, which he developed through researching gangs in Chicago (Muncie, 2005, p. 427). Cohen's theory outlined a number of major features of subcultures of delinquency. He determined that much of the crimes committed by gangs are not driven by profit or monetary gain and that the members of these gangs actively reject the dominant values, held by most of society (Newburn, 2007, p. 197). He also stated that those within subcultures of delinquency do not specialise in any particular delinquent act and that the acts they commit provide instant gratification (Newburn, 2007, p.

    • Word count: 2387
  11. Consider what social and personal factors might predict whether people become the perpetrators of crime

    Another reason is that medical conditions which can be linked with criminal behaviour, such as antisocial personality disorder, may be passed on from the parents to their children (Farrington, 2007, pp. 613-14). Finally, the child may simply imitate the criminal behaviour of older members of the family. Parental involvement in a child's life as well as the discipline methods employed have also been suggested as being linked with offending. Children who are disciplined harshly and physically, as well as children who are abused or neglected, are more likely to take part in criminal activity in later life (Farrington, 2007, p.

    • Word count: 2241
  12. The formal criminal justice system plays only a very minor role in achieving social control and regulation. Examine this statement in relation to the methods and strategies employed to control and regulate both those who may be considered a threat o

    The effects of surveillance methods such as CCTV will be specifically examined when looking at how social control has impacted on the lives of ordinary members of the public. One of the first acts to be passed after the September 11th terrorist attacks was the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 (ATCSA 2001) (Newburn, 2007, p. 875). One of the powers introduced by the act was the ability for the Home Secretary to indefinitely detain any non-British citizen whom he suspected to be a terrorist.

    • Word count: 2376
  13. Trait Approaches

    One of the most well known tests, developed late in the nineteenth century by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, is the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) (Blocher 2000). Several forms of research have been conducted to find out how much of a correlation there was between IQ and crime. Studies conducted between 1910 -1914 found that 51 percent of delinquents institutionalised were considered to have a low intelligence (Sutherland 1931 p.358). Edwin Sutherland debated those statistics and through his own research, compared the general population by selecting, army draftees, with institutionalised delinquents.

    • Word count: 2533
  14. Len Wade is a young offender who received a custodial sentence in 2007. His current offences all involve Burglary of Dwelling. The main theories used to analysis Wades behaviour will be; The Social Bond Theory, Self Control Theory and The Differe

    Hirschi argued that attachment to family members is an important source of protection from deviant behaviour. In the 1995 study by Graham and Bowling 70%of young people who said they were weakly attached to their family were offenders compared with 42%of offenders who said they were strongly attached to their families. This finding supports Hirschi's SBT in relation to attachment and appears to confirm that family attachments play an important role in desistance from deviant behaviour. Although the Prison Probation Officer's report (PPO)

    • Word count: 2889
  15. Victimology and Restorative Justice

    This essay will aim to assess the extent to which Restorative Justice provides a more just resolution of a dispute than that provided by traditional justice processes. Many societies have run themselves on the basis of restoration and healing for centuries, and the idea is underpinned by a huge faith basis and reinforces the approach of Christian sense of forgiveness and healing (Digan, 2005). Within the 1990s restorative justice began to involve the family members, relatives, and friends of the victims and offenders to take into account the importance of community involvement (Braithwaite, 1989)

    • Word count: 2611
  16. Article Review. The Carceral in Foucaults Discipline and Punish: the birth of the prison, a book by Michel Foucault, first published in 1975, then later edited in English in 1977 still continues to rivet attention 35 years after it was written.

    Foucault analysed, our persistent and reasoned need to normalise individuals, to punish and reform deviance within society through discipline. Foucault tries to account for universal and historical developments and the emergence of a disciplined society "the carceral archipelago" in which all of institutional life is characterised by surveillance and discipline and in which delinquent and abnormal behaviour are subjected to scientific investigation. Ultimately, Discipline and Punish is a call to arms, a predict for the future, and a study of the past all organised into one elegant text. The chapter opens with an explanation of a particular model French prison Mettray, possibly for young offenders.

    • Word count: 2067
  17. In this Critique I talk about crime prevention, how government schemes have helped in crime prevention and if these schemes has made any change since the 1960s that crime prevention came into practice.

    Clearly language can hinder comparison, but this stems as much from variation in the adoption and application of terminology as from literal problems of translation. The current absence of suitable indicators on which to compare approaches, beyond the currently used dimensions of sentence severity and vague notations of punitively further hinders comparative analysis. For example neo-liberal states such as England and Wales have tended towards more punitive and exclusionary approaches influenced by rational choice perspectives including situational crime prevention. Chapter 2 the political evolution of crime prevention in England and Wales, His analysis demonstrates how the principles of situational crime prevention and the timing of its emergence were well aligned to the Conservative ideologies of self interest and privatisation.

    • Word count: 2351
  18. Examine the extent to which the media can be said to inform and misinform us about the nature and extent of crime.

    Grabosky and Wilson (1989) suggest that crimes as well as criminals, victims and criminal justice attract society's attention because such reporting is full of drama, pain, involves real life, real people, and the frightening power to deprive a person of liberty (Grabosky & Wilson (1989) as cited by Goddard & Saunders, 2001). Others say that violent crime news is so widespread because society may be willing to tolerate threatening and frightful stories because those stories provide public with a way of monitoring their environments in order to avoid danger (Valdivia, 2006).

    • Word count: 2486
  19. In my essay I will attempt to describe Mills concept The Sociological Imagination and common-sense explanation and use the main ideas and differences between sociological imagination and common-sense to analyse the topic of racism in UK.

    Mills encouraged every one of us as individuality to understand that our own personal fortunes or misfortunes must be understood in terms of larger public issues that we should see beyond self, see the hidden and be aware how our individual problems can impact the society. For example very specific circumstances might lead to one person becoming unemployed but when unemployment rates in society as a whole rise it becomes a public issue that needs to be explained (M. Harambolos & M.

    • Word count: 2034
  20. terrorism

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  21. Modified (side-constrained) theories of consequentialism have failed to overcome the enduring problems created by the pure consequentialist theory of punishment This essay is going to concentrate on the second type of modified consequentialism: Soc

    Presently we can see that the pure theory has the main concepts (as seen above) that it uses in order to punish an individual. By using these forms of punishment it has not been able to proportion the severity of crime in relation to the crime itself. By deterring future crimes it was not able to sustain the original concept of why it was formed. Its original aim which was to deter future crimes had a minimal effect as some forms of punishment were failing. Rehabilitation is a form used that has raised many criticism as to its effectiveness.

    • Word count: 2535
  22. Examine the contribution of feminism to contemporary criminology

    Then I will finally end with a conclusion using all my findings and bring them together to conclude. So to begin I will discuss the various different branches of feminist criminology. Starting with liberal feminism, According to Maguire, Morgan and Reiner (2002:113) liberal feminism is committed to equal civil rights, and the equality of prospects and the acknowledgement of women's rights in welfare, education and employment. Secondly Marxist feminism is committed to describing material foundation of women's repression and the relationship between the modes of production and women's status, and so using theories of women and class to address the role of the family.

    • Word count: 2844
  23. Child sexual abuse: The comparison of the situation in UK, Germany and Poland

    The last country where the situation is going to be presented will be United Kingdom. It will show briefly when the child protection system developed in UK and how it has changed since then. It will present how Protection of Children Act 1999 tries to prevent child sexual abuse. After presentation of all three countries, the findings will be presented and short comparison of the problems that all these countries face when trying to protect children from sexual abuse. The first presented country as mentioned in the introduction will be Germany. It is a country which since the Second World War has experienced large-scale demographic changes.

    • Word count: 2345
  24. White Collar Criminality

    It also refers to offences against consumers such as: illegal sales and marketing practises, the sale of unfit goods or the fraudulent safety testing of products. The are also crimes against employees and employment protection such as: sexual and racial discrimination or violations of wage laws. The last type of corporate offences are environmental crimes such as: illegal emissions to air, water or land, and hazardous waste dumping (Nelken, 2007). It is very difficult to study white collar crime, because in many countries the information about white collar crimes is not included in the official statistics.

    • Word count: 2139
  25. Reflective Essay on working with a Team

    The question and my contribution Our main question was "What is ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) and how does it improve access to the justice system?" Our group was composed of Matt, Toyo, Jemima and me. From the very start, we formed a close working relationship, to the extent that working together felt somewhat like being in a family atmosphere, with mutual support and good humour. However, as we all had different backgrounds, being from England, Nigeria, Ghana and Sweden respectively, we found it quite difficult to work as a coherent unit. As this was one of my major concerns, and an issue which I felt could harm the quality of our presentation, I realised that it was important to be as proactive and thorough as possible when completing my part of the research2.

    • Word count: 2298

"I claim that human mind or human society is not divided into watertight compartments called social, political and religious. All act and react upon one another."

-Mahatma Gandhi

Social studies is all about humans, whether it's the structure of our society (sociology), our interactions with the environment (human and social geography), our struggle forpower (politics), our tendency to break laws (criminology), or our capacity to form a wealth of distinct cultures (anthropology). If this sounds terribly interestingto you, then perhaps you should consider studying one of the social studies subjects at university.

Students of these subjects should ready themselves for a significant amount of writing. If you'd like a little bit of help with this, Marked by Teachers is here for you. Read our student-submitted social studies essays to get inspired, and study the teacher annotations to gain insight into what earns top marks. Before long, you'll be writing papers that do full justice to your great ideas.

When students of these subjects leave university, they tend to apply their degrees directly in academia, consulting, and analysis, or transfer the skillsto other careers like planning ,HR,marketing and media.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • In my essay I will attempt to describe Mills concept The Sociological Imagination and common-sense explanation and use the main ideas and differences between sociological imagination and common-sense to analyse the topic of racism in UK.

    "In conclusion I want to say that racism is alive because people do not use sociological imagination but find useful common-sense ideas: they do not think with own head just follow stereotypes. If people with racist ideas used sociological imagination and looked at asylum seekers and immigrants from the perspective of culture and loss they would understand what must it be like to leave your country, family, language, and culture for a community in which you are treated as less than human (J. Rothenberg, 10.05.2009). Moreover if a racist used sociological imagination and looked at human but not at his skin colour, ethnicity or race I think they would understand that our all blood is red, we all feel pain and we are all equal. As for the future looking at our failing economy, increased number of hate crimes I think that teaching the next generation how to practice the sociological imagination is more crucial now than ever."

  • What are the aims of the Youth Justice System in England and Wales. How did they come about and how effectively are they being met? Discuss

    "In conclusion, the radical overhaul of the YJS has led to a number of aims, all of which have to adhere to the principle aim of preventing offending. Overall, it appears these aims are effectively being met. YO are now more likely to receive an intervention when they first offend, and the time taken from arrest to sentence has dramatically reduced. In addition, prevention schemes appear effective and adequately funded, and many of the new alternatives to custodial sentences, most notably ISSP's, are making a positive impact. Most importantly, the YJB sets a clear national framework and Yots seem to successfully co-ordinate and deliver services to YO and the courts. Whilst more could be done to help reform the youth courts, the changes so far appear effective. In regards to custodial sentences, it appears that although DTO's can be effective, the programmes required to help YO are often not provided and the transition back into the community is not as good as it could be. Furthermore large numbers of YO are still being remanded into custody and the aim of increasing public awareness and confidence in the YJS is not being met. It also appears that the discrepancies regarding both gender and ethnicity need to be addressed by the YJS."

  • Examine the extent to which the media can be said to inform and misinform us about the nature and extent of crime.

    "To conclude, this essay showed how media inform and misinform people about the nature and extent of crimes and examined how newspapers represent domestic violence crimes. To resume, media do inform people about crimes, but because of need to earn money they use sensationalism and selective reporting which present a distorted and inaccurate view of crimes. Moreover evidence show that newspapers try to break the public silence around domestic violence cases but unfortunately they lack professionalism and broader understanding what is domestic violence. That's why many newspapers draw inaccurate, incomplete and potentially misleading picture of domestic violence fatalities."

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