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University Degree: Criminology
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Research Proposal. Public perception of child sex offenders: has the media influenced our perceptions to the extent that it has made us paranoid in this obsessed society?
and which are not. It has been said that the media 'distinguishes the good from the bad and, in doing so, promotes social solidarity' (2003:39). Is this really the case? This literature review focuses on the issue of whether or not the public perception of child sex offenders is influenced by the media and whether or not it makes us paranoid in civilianised society. One very common area of this proposal is to analyse academics views on this topic and whether or not they agree with such suggestions.
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Obstetric research examined the effects of prenatal exposure to nicotine, and birth complications on later criminal and antisocial behaviour. Raine (2002), analysed research into foetal exposure to smoking during pregnancy and later criminal behaviour, and found significant links. Brennan et al. (1999) found a significant increase in adult violent offending in individuals born to mothers who smoked 20 cigarettes a day throughout pregnancy, and also found a dose-response relationship between increased numbers of cigarettes smoked and increased violence. However, Brennan et al.
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& Varma, 1998; Spelman, 1995; Wood & Grasmick, 1999), and expected by both that imprisonment has robust deterrent effects for reoffending in the future (DeJong, 1997). These deterrent effects are twofold; deterrence for the population as a whole (general deterrence) and for adjudicated offenders (specific deterrence) (McGuire, 2002). Clarke and Cornish's (1985) pioneering rational choice theory assumes that a potential criminal decides whether to commit a crime after evaluating costs and benefits of the particular crime. Therefore, the notion that prison will act as both a general and specific deterrent may be attempting to address the process of committing a
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Context of study This proposed study is focusing on the data generated by social theorist on violence against women such as Bandura 19731who outline the reasons why some women find it difficult to leave abusive husbands. Hamilton & Coates (1993)2 rightly stated that women who do not leave abusive relationships are often pathologized and blamed for their victimization. This is what generally happens and therefore the focus of attention is shifted from the wrongs perpetrated by the abuser to people viewing the abused as passive.
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This essay aims to answer whether or not Honour killings are being condoned by the state and also the society. This essay will also look at different definitions of the meaning of 'honour killing in the UK and Pakistan
Honour killings are murders which are committed by family members, mainly males to a female in the family for having brought shame, dishonour and disgrace upon the family. 'The apparent "shame" could be caused by a victim either refusing to accept the proposal of an arranged marriage or for having a relationship that is considered inappropriate by the family. This may be due to the reason of casts or statuses'. (http://marriage.about.com). Honour killings are the product of intensely ingrained patriarchal social and cultural prejudices (Yvonne Haddad: 1998: p 144).
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The last 30 years have seen a wealth of research that seeks to explore the culture or cultures of the police. The work of scholars such as Skolnick (1994), Holdaway (1983) and Chan (1997), among others, has sought to explain how the police undertake their
Reiner (1992) provides a substantial overview of the research in this area. He argues that cop culture is integral both to the ways in which police officers make sense of the social environment in which they work and also to the ways in which they attempt to legitimize any behaviours which might be deemed inappropriate, unauthorized or illegal. Such shared 'knowledge' serves both to instil camaraderie between officers and, simultaneously, to alienate the wider public. The work of Skolnick (1994) highlights the importance of three exclusive core characteristics of police work (danger, authority and the pressure for efficiency)
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Hanson was considered for release on parole on two occasions, both times in which the parole panel were given A Parole Assessment Report (PAR) produced by the home officer along with Reports from prison staff and Probation Officers. A full Risk of Harm (RoH) assessment and an Offender Assessment System (OASys) had also been completed. These risk assessments included an OGRS score of 91% which assessed Hanson as presenting a high Risk of Harm (RoH), however they were not made available to the parole panel and so were not able be acted on by the LPA.
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The CJS is said to mainly discriminate against ethnic minority males. Macpherson's definition of institutional racism is "The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin." These are 3 of the most highlighted forms of discrimination and I will focus upon race/colour. Some researchers argue that there is a greater likelihood for ethnic minority groups, particularly black ethnic groups, to be criminalised as this reflects their greater involvement in crime.
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What keeps the crime rate low, in a low-crime society ? Focus your answer on one particular low crime society but draw relevant contrasts with one high crime society.
Eventually it will analyse the credibility of the statistics and contextual problems with comparing different societies. WW2 brought great devastation to a number of countries and Japan was no exception. Many cities and towns were ruined and the economy was defeated. Rapid economic and industrial growth saw the country prospering again by 1970 with a reducing rate of crime. This generated a problem for structural criminologists in the U.S who held industrialisation responsible for their increasing rates. Japan experienced a decrease in crime from 1900 per 100,000 in 1950 to 1100 per 100,000 in 1975 (Reichel,2008)
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Many contemporary criminologists have doubtedbiologicalexplanations of crime.(Williams 2004) Discuss in terms of both contemporary empirical and pre 21st century approaches.
Other researches such as Earnest Hooter (1939) and William Sheldon (1949) also looked at physical characteristics of criminals trying to challenge Lombroso's ideas, and found similar results. Inheritance of criminal behaviour received a vast amount of attention as research developed by biologists believing that behaviour could be passed down through generations (Hunter & Dantzker, 2005). Before the development of genetic transmission became apparent, hereditary influence was studied through family trees. Richard Dugdale (1877) famously studied a well-known family, who had six members in prison by 1874.
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What has the government done to change the regime of non-disclosure of evidence which has led to numerous miscarriages of justice?
However it is not always seen to be the case by prosecutors or police where there priority is to obtain a conviction. An example of how important this regime is and also the dire consequences of its failure is the case of Stefan kiszko1; he was convicted in 1976 for the rape and murder of 11-year old Lesley Molseed in 1975. Evidence that showed he was sterile (which rendered him incapable of producing the forensic evidence found at the scene)
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Control theories are limited in their explanations of criminality as they are only able to address juvenile street crime. Critically analyse this statement.
When taken to the extreme, social control theory dismisses or ignores motivational issues. Travis Hirschi viewed the motivations as so natural to human beings that no special forces were necessary to explain law breaking. He stated that; "Law- breaking is often the most immediate source of gratification or conflict resolution, and no special motivation is required to explain such behaviour." (Hirschi, 1969) He also advocated that human beings are active, flexible individuals who will engage in a range of activities, unless the range is limited by processes of socialisation and social learning. However, many control-oriented theorists do introduce motivating forces, pressures and pulls into their explanations.
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Consider what Social and Personal Factors might predict whether People become Victims of Crime and Offenders.
This essay is also going to use research conducted by The Home Office and other governmental agencies. After examining these factors, this essay is going to see if there are any similarities between a typical victim and offender and try to explain why these similarities are present. When considering someone's geographical area, you firstly have to distinguish what type of area they live in as there are three sub-categories within the geographical area subject. There is the inner city area which is generally comprised of the central parts of the big cities, which are usually older and often characterized by overcrowding neighbourhoods usually from either low incomes or from minority groups.
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IDENTIFY CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF LOCAL CRIME PREVENTION PLANNING. DISCUSS THE BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF ENGAGING RELEVANT STAKEHOLDERS:
This is largely due to local parties having vast knowledge and capacities to identify specific crime precipitating factors that statewide and regional strategies sometimes fail to acknowledge (QLD government 2002). Thus, the risk of being less effective in preventing crime the inclusion of partnerships and agency cooperation is key to a crime prevention plan as supporters for the multi-agency view it as being the 'panacea' of the criminal justice crisis (Crawford and Jones 1995). Some key components of a local crime prevention plan will be outlined below: It must be noted that disceprancies arsie in proposed methods of research in
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One of the steps is that the government has asked the question of religious identity in the 2001 census so a clear understanding of religious diversity can be understood in the UK. However there has been other research that has been done in great detail to explore the exact data showing how Muslims living in the UK are discriminated against and excluded. Overall, there has been little research done into the nature and extent of religious discrimination in the UK (Hepple et al 2001).
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A witness of fact is any individual member of the public who is placed before the court with no expertise in any subject specific area. Witnesses' of fact are designated to give evidence that is factual and are not permitted to give hearsay evidence of any variety (Rothwell, 2004). Hearsay evidence is described as information which has been told to them by another party (Rothwell, 2004). Expert witnesses are different from witnesses of fact because they not only give factual evidence but they are also encouraged to give their own opinions as long as they can supply reasoning behind it (Rothwell, 2004).
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These figures are then published annually and printed in the Home Office publication which later came to be known as Criminal Statistics (Goodey, 2005). Although, official statistics produce data on the extent of crime as reported to and recorded by the police, victimisation Surveys are better at determining the 'true rates' of crime as it reports crime that is not reported to the police (Goodey, 2005). Victimisation surveys have been referred to as the tools that are better at unmasking the 'dark figure' of crime (Goodey, 2005).
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Whilst the probation service had been using a variety of un-evaluated programmes the prison service had developed a 'quality assurance system based on an accreditation procedure for group programmes' (Raynor, 2002, p1189). The Home Office decided that the Probation Service should follow suit and in 1999 a Joint Prison and Probation Accreditation panel was formed to 'quality assure' the delivery of Probation and Prison run rehabilitative CBT programmes (Hendderman & Hough, 2004, p153). At the same time as these changes the Crime and Disorder Act 1999 pushed for 'joined up' multiagency work ethic in order as to get 'Tough on Crime' and move forward using 'joined up solutions' and a 'devolution of power to local people rationale' (Pitts, 2000, p).
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Jock Young referred to the growth in recorded crime during the years of the Keynesian Welfare state in the UK as an aetiological crisis for criminology. The expectation had been that with rising living standards and increased welfare provision crime would fall. Criminologists have become so used to explaining rising crime that they might now face a second aetiological crisis - explaining falling crime rates Essentially the ecological, or holistic, view is that a neighbourhood is like an ecosystem. An ecosystem has many parts to it, which fit more or less together to give that system some form of balance.
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Critically discuss in what ways Specialist Domestic Violence Courts aim to make the justice system receptive to the needs of victims.
It is no surprise then to assume that the reporting and prosecuting of domestic abuse is exceptionally difficult for victims. This is reflected within research which indicates that domestic violence is acutely under reported.(Wykes, M and Welsh, K 2008.,p2). Regardless of this, current research estimates that domestic violence still accounts for 16% of all violent crime and claims the lives of two women each week. Worryingly it is also recorded that only 5 per cent of recorded cases of domestic violence end in conviction ( wykes & welsh).
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(Murji, p 177, 2001) Moral panics have several distinctive features which include, panic, anxiety, emotive language and imagery, a media led demonisation of a particular society group, and they are usually short lived. The media, usually led by the press will define a group or a particular act as deviant and focus solely on it to the elimination of almost everything else. (Jewkes, 2004. p64-67) Moral panics' are generally fuelled by media coverage of social issues. (Thompson, 1998, p 1-3)
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In contrast, the State label violent acts committed by political opponents and national movements as terrorist. Schmid (1984) suggested the detailed definition of terrorism as follows; "It is the method of combat in which random or symbolic victims serve as an instrumental target of violence. These instrumental victims share group or class characteristics which form the basis for their selection for victimization. Through previous use of violence or the credible threat of violence other members of that group or class are put in a state of chronic fear" (Moeckli, 2008, p45).
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THE NEEDS OF CHILD PRISONERS ARE NECCESARILY NEGLECTED. MOREOVER, THE CONDITIONS AND TREATMENT TYPICALLY ENDURED BY CHILD PRISONERS ROUTINELY VIOLATE THEIR EMOTIONAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL INTEGRITY: THEY ARE PROFOUNDLY DAMAGING AND HAR
Despite these problems, the government have still allowed the number of child prisoners to rise. The UN Convention in 1989 set out a universally set of non-negotiable standards and obligations reinforcing the development of policy practice and legislation for working with children. In the convention, children are defined as persons under the age of eighteen. Approved by the UK in 1991, it became the first legally compulsory international manuscript to include the full range of human rights - civil and political rights, and economic, social, and cultural rights (Unicef, 31st December: 1995). However, following a review by the Chief Inspector of Prisons in 1997, it was concluded that children under the age of eighteen should
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He use his suicide study as an example to strengthen his argument. Furthermore he claim that these facts exist as a result of social interactions and historical developments over a long period of time and come from "varying collective representations and diverse forms of social organization" (Hadden p.104). As individuals who are born and raised in society, these social facts are learned through socialisation ( i.e. through the family, school, media etc) and generally accepted.( http://uregina.ca/~gingrich/o26f99.htm) if individual go according to these set of "collective consensus" there will be no crime. However Durkheim was sceptical about this, he recognise that social order is a fragile thing, It would be impossible, he felt to imagine a society where social order had reached level such that nobody ever break the law.
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Explain the emergence of left and right realist criminologist and evaluate their strengths and weaknesses.
In broken windows (1982), Wilson argued that crime flourishes in situation where social control breaks down. In his analysis he mentions that in any community a proportion of the population are likely to engage in "incivilities" which may lead to offensive or irritating behaviour including vandalism or dropping litter. However, if the incivilities go unchecked then the entire social order of the area breaks down and gradually there is a move to more frequent and more serious crime. Basically the point that Wilson is making is that if one window breaks then the rest will get broken.
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