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University Degree: Criminology

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  1. The History and Development of Forensic Science

    DNA Typing2 was introduced in the 1980's and revolutionised forensic science. Dr Alec Jeffreys first described DNA typing in 1985 and this development in forensic science allowed the police and law enforcement agencies to be able to match perpetrators of a crime to the victim or crime scene. Due to this substantial development it has closed thousands of unsolved crimes, convicting those from crimes they otherwise would have got away with and also freeing innocent people who had not committed the crimes they had been punished for like in the case of Stefan Kiszko.3 The first case this was used

    • Word count: 2735
  2. Is the development of an international norm of humanitarian intervention sufficient in preventing genocide and mass killings?

    Preserving the life of the state is seen as the only important moral duty for the state leaders (Tim Dunne, 2008). On the hand we have the liberalists who view the world from an idealist lens and base everything on the powers of democracy. As Immanuel Kant (1724) a liberalist thinker states that those states with a democratic government are less likely to go to war with their democratic neighbours and respect the rights of their own citizens. Liberalists such as John Stuart Mills (1973)

    • Word count: 1622
  3. Personality & Attitudes on Revenge in the General Population of Scotland

    The questionnaire was then utilised to determine that psychiatric inpatients scored higher than non-patients on fantasies of death, withdrawal, restitution, suffering, God and closeness but fantasies of power and revenge, admiration of self, competition and aesthetics did not differentiate between groups. Thus, suggesting that the questionnaire was able to differentiate the groups by fantasy factors such as death, withdrawal, restitution, suffering, God and closeness and highlighted associations of power and revenge, admiration of self, competition and aesthetics with an independent measure of psychology.

    • Word count: 4338
  4. The Effect of Line-up Instructions on Eyewitness Response.

    Many professionals have argued pejoratively, that it can be one of the most unreliable sources of evidence available to the justice system as it has been the result of many mistaken identifications and convictions (Loftus, 1974). As eyewitness identification of a suspect from line-ups and photo-spreads is continued to be accepted as vital direct evidence in the court of law, growing concerns among researchers, in their belief that it is open to error, promotes further investigation (Wells & Loftus, 1987).

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  5. Street Gangs. This essay will discuss the response to street gangs within the United States of America. I will define a street gang; how street gangs are formed, and what they consist of. This essay will discuss theories such as; Cohens (1955)

    According to Thrasher,(1936) groups originally formed spontaneously, intergraded through conflict and are characterized by the following types of behavior: meeting face to face, movements within locality individually or collectively that incorporate, and conflict organized criminal planning. Although, it may be believed that there is not one clear definition in the explanation of what is a 'street gang', however, one example is provided by the California Penal Code, (2008) within Dangerous Weapons Control Law, which states; "any organization, association or group of three or more persons whether formal or informal, which has common name, identifying sign or symbol, where members individually

    • Word count: 2049
  6. Examine the key debates surrounding the relationship between crime and inequality

    which stated that 67% of the UK prison population had been unemployed in the four weeks before their imprisonment, compared with just 5% of the general population. Another example of data that supports the idea of high unemployment being linked with higher crime rates is the official crime statistics from the 1970's to 90's. From 1979-92, official crime rates doubled, with the steepest increase being a 40% rise from 1989-92 (Downes, 1995, p. 1). During this period of time, national unemployment varied from 13.7% in 1986, 7.5% in 1990 and then peaking at 14% in 1993 (Witt, Clarke, & Field, 1999, p.

    • Word count: 2195
  7. Criminological Theory: Explaining Crime. This essay will look at how the subcultural theories and control theories try to explain why some people commit the specific crimes of shoplifting and theft offences other than burglary.

    One set of theories that attempts to explain criminality are the subcultural theories. One of the first subcultural theories was Albert Cohen's (1955) theory of delinquency, which he developed through researching gangs in Chicago (Muncie, 2005, p. 427). Cohen's theory outlined a number of major features of subcultures of delinquency. He determined that much of the crimes committed by gangs are not driven by profit or monetary gain and that the members of these gangs actively reject the dominant values, held by most of society (Newburn, 2007, p. 197). He also stated that those within subcultures of delinquency do not specialise in any particular delinquent act and that the acts they commit provide instant gratification (Newburn, 2007, p.

    • Word count: 2387
  8. Consider what social and personal factors might predict whether people become the perpetrators of crime

    Another reason is that medical conditions which can be linked with criminal behaviour, such as antisocial personality disorder, may be passed on from the parents to their children (Farrington, 2007, pp. 613-14). Finally, the child may simply imitate the criminal behaviour of older members of the family. Parental involvement in a child's life as well as the discipline methods employed have also been suggested as being linked with offending. Children who are disciplined harshly and physically, as well as children who are abused or neglected, are more likely to take part in criminal activity in later life (Farrington, 2007, p.

    • Word count: 2241
  9. The formal criminal justice system plays only a very minor role in achieving social control and regulation. Examine this statement in relation to the methods and strategies employed to control and regulate both those who may be considered a threat o

    The effects of surveillance methods such as CCTV will be specifically examined when looking at how social control has impacted on the lives of ordinary members of the public. One of the first acts to be passed after the September 11th terrorist attacks was the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 (ATCSA 2001) (Newburn, 2007, p. 875). One of the powers introduced by the act was the ability for the Home Secretary to indefinitely detain any non-British citizen whom he suspected to be a terrorist.

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  10. Domestic violence. The following essay will concentrate on patriarchal-terrorism (Gilchrist et al. 2004) meaning the non-sexual violence of men against their female intimate partners. This kind of aggression was given many names since its social

    Recently, the "traditional" assumption that anger causes aggression (Anderson & Bushmann 2002) has been questioned. Berkowitz (2003) assumes that anger plays several causal roles in aggression, such as reducing inhibitions, maintaining aggressive intention over time, priming aggressive scripts and energising behaviour by increasing arousal levels. Contrarily, hostility is a more permanent negative attitude of resentment, mistrust or even hate (Buss, 1961, Blackburn 1998). On the other hand, aggressiveness refers to a disposition toward becoming aggressive (Blackburn, 1998). However, an act of aggression - defined by Blackburn (1998) as an Individual's intentional, goal-directed performance- does not have to be connected with a violent disposition.

    • Word count: 8876
  11. Is the increased use of electronically monitored home detention (EMHD) as recently confirmed in the CJA 2003 justifiable from a legal-psychological perspective? EMHD is said to be more humane, rehabilitative and especially less costly, than impriso

    Many countries including England and Wales followed the American example eagerly and uncritically (Christie, 1993; von Hirsch, 1992). Despite ongoing criticism concerning its ethical and legal aspects (Bishop, 1996; Mair & Mortimer, 1996; Whitfield, 1997; Mann, 1998), EMHD was established as a cost-effective alternative to prison and a risk-reducing community sentence-component. EMHD, judged to be more lenient than prison, but harsher than probation, claims to achieve broad-ranging punishment goals such as retribution, deterrence and incapacitation, but also rehabilitation (Ball & Lilly, 1988; Lilly, 1992; Payne & Gainey, 2000).

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  12. Gangs. Is the trigger for gang membership blamed strictly on the lack of family interaction or the feeling of superiority among teens?

    In school, teens can feel the lack of safety and the negative vibe from teachers. Peer factors associates with delinquent or aggressive peers. Poverty and drugs in the community can persuade them to join for safety (Delinquency). Childhood risk factors included early violence, acting out, and affiliation with antisocial peers. Having more than one of the risk factors has a higher chance of joining a gang. Teens of different race and gender join gangs all over the world. The ages of teens in gangs vary from place to place. The beginning of adolescence is when someone would join a gang because it is a time when young teens are developing their identities.

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  13. Compare Classical and Postivist Criminologies

    as weak social bonds at school or the family, biological, that is having genetic abnormalities and psychological factors such as mental health disorders (Pond p.23). On top of the issue of 'free will' which prosecutors are still proving against defendants in courts today, the classical school acknowledged how punishments that crime delivers deter people from undertaking criminal behaviour.

    • Word count: 553
  14. Trait Approaches

    One of the most well known tests, developed late in the nineteenth century by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, is the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) (Blocher 2000). Several forms of research have been conducted to find out how much of a correlation there was between IQ and crime. Studies conducted between 1910 -1914 found that 51 percent of delinquents institutionalised were considered to have a low intelligence (Sutherland 1931 p.358). Edwin Sutherland debated those statistics and through his own research, compared the general population by selecting, army draftees, with institutionalised delinquents.

    • Word count: 2533
  15. Self Defence Law and Conflict Resolution

    But if a defendant uses excessive force this shows that he acted unreasonably. Therefore, there will be no valid defence, and the defendant will be liable. 1. REASONABLE FORCE The normal guidelines are that the law allows only reasonable force to be used in the circumstances and, what equates to reasonable is to be judged depending on the circumstances and what the accused believed them to be (whether reasonably or not). In deciding whether the defendant had used only reasonable force, in Palmer v R [1971] AC 814, lord Morris made the following points: * A person who is being attacked should not be expected to "weigh to a nicety the exact measure of his necessary defensive action".

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  16. Len Wade is a young offender who received a custodial sentence in 2007. His current offences all involve Burglary of Dwelling. The main theories used to analysis Wades behaviour will be; The Social Bond Theory, Self Control Theory and The Differe

    Hirschi argued that attachment to family members is an important source of protection from deviant behaviour. In the 1995 study by Graham and Bowling 70%of young people who said they were weakly attached to their family were offenders compared with 42%of offenders who said they were strongly attached to their families. This finding supports Hirschi's SBT in relation to attachment and appears to confirm that family attachments play an important role in desistance from deviant behaviour. Although the Prison Probation Officer's report (PPO)

    • Word count: 2889
  17. Victimology and Restorative Justice

    This essay will aim to assess the extent to which Restorative Justice provides a more just resolution of a dispute than that provided by traditional justice processes. Many societies have run themselves on the basis of restoration and healing for centuries, and the idea is underpinned by a huge faith basis and reinforces the approach of Christian sense of forgiveness and healing (Digan, 2005). Within the 1990s restorative justice began to involve the family members, relatives, and friends of the victims and offenders to take into account the importance of community involvement (Braithwaite, 1989)

    • Word count: 2611
  18. Criminal and Forensic Psychology

    Furthermore, Strain Theory associated with Merton (1968), similarly explained offending behaviour as being a consequence of social strain, learned behaviour and limited opportunities, thus indicating that offending behaviour is the result of social pathology which in turn leads the individual to develop innovative ways of achieving 'culturally defined goals'2 (White and Haines, 2004). Central therefore to social theory and specifically to that of Differential Association, is the hypothesis that offending behaviour is a consequence of learning from the social environment and not of physiological origin.

    • Word count: 1661
  19. Article Review. The Carceral in Foucaults Discipline and Punish: the birth of the prison, a book by Michel Foucault, first published in 1975, then later edited in English in 1977 still continues to rivet attention 35 years after it was written.

    Foucault analysed, our persistent and reasoned need to normalise individuals, to punish and reform deviance within society through discipline. Foucault tries to account for universal and historical developments and the emergence of a disciplined society "the carceral archipelago" in which all of institutional life is characterised by surveillance and discipline and in which delinquent and abnormal behaviour are subjected to scientific investigation. Ultimately, Discipline and Punish is a call to arms, a predict for the future, and a study of the past all organised into one elegant text. The chapter opens with an explanation of a particular model French prison Mettray, possibly for young offenders.

    • Word count: 2067
  20. How significant a threat is terrorism today? Terrorists are inspired by many different motives. Terrorist can be classified into three categories, these are rational, psychological, and cultural.

    If the attack goes wrong or fails to produce the intended results, the terrorists can deny responsibility. The terrorist bombings of the New York World Trade Center and the Oklahoma City Federal Building prove how easy it is for terrorists to operate in a free and democratic society. It has always been seen that terrorist attacks are meant to have less people dead and more people watching, this was to make a point and for changes to be made. However, more modern terrorist attacks seem to have the opposite way of thinking with mass amount of casualties. Terrorists are inspired by many different motives. Terrorist can be classified into three categories, these are rational, psychological, and cultural.

    • Word count: 1451
  21. In this Critique I talk about crime prevention, how government schemes have helped in crime prevention and if these schemes has made any change since the 1960s that crime prevention came into practice.

    Clearly language can hinder comparison, but this stems as much from variation in the adoption and application of terminology as from literal problems of translation. The current absence of suitable indicators on which to compare approaches, beyond the currently used dimensions of sentence severity and vague notations of punitively further hinders comparative analysis. For example neo-liberal states such as England and Wales have tended towards more punitive and exclusionary approaches influenced by rational choice perspectives including situational crime prevention. Chapter 2 the political evolution of crime prevention in England and Wales, His analysis demonstrates how the principles of situational crime prevention and the timing of its emergence were well aligned to the Conservative ideologies of self interest and privatisation.

    • Word count: 2351
  22. Examine the extent to which the media can be said to inform and misinform us about the nature and extent of crime.

    Grabosky and Wilson (1989) suggest that crimes as well as criminals, victims and criminal justice attract society's attention because such reporting is full of drama, pain, involves real life, real people, and the frightening power to deprive a person of liberty (Grabosky & Wilson (1989) as cited by Goddard & Saunders, 2001). Others say that violent crime news is so widespread because society may be willing to tolerate threatening and frightful stories because those stories provide public with a way of monitoring their environments in order to avoid danger (Valdivia, 2006).

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  23. Corrections in the 21st Century - 3 Strikes, Boot Camps and Female Prison Officers in the US Correctional System.

    Another flaw with the three-strikes-law is it takes away the power from judges. Judges have the power to sentence convicted criminals, but the three strikes law takes away that power by forcing judges to mandatory sentences. 2. Do boot camps have a future in United States corrections? Boot camp programs have the potential to reduce institutional crowding and costs, provided they are large enough. This assumes they target offenders who would otherwise have served a longer sentence in another institution, and keep enough participants from returning to correctional facilities. Some boot camps offer rehabilitative programs such as drug and alcohol treatment, life skills training, vocational education, therapy, and general education classes.

    • Word count: 1027
  24. Ethics and Police Corruption

    But what is police corruption? In order to understand this concept, it is important that we know its meaning. Police corruption is defined as the " abuse of police authority for personal or organizational gain by a police officer acting officially" (Dempsey and Forst, 2010, 230). Indeed, police corruption is a major social problem all over the world. Police officers often lack integrity and professionalism. In effect, such corrupt activities pose significant obstacles to improve police public association and relations. Acts of police corruption may include corruption of authority, accepting gratuities, perjuries, kickbacks, opportunistic theft, shakedown, protection of illegal activities, direct criminal activities, payoffs, and flaking.

    • Word count: 1917
  25. In my essay I will attempt to describe Mills concept The Sociological Imagination and common-sense explanation and use the main ideas and differences between sociological imagination and common-sense to analyse the topic of racism in UK.

    Mills encouraged every one of us as individuality to understand that our own personal fortunes or misfortunes must be understood in terms of larger public issues that we should see beyond self, see the hidden and be aware how our individual problems can impact the society. For example very specific circumstances might lead to one person becoming unemployed but when unemployment rates in society as a whole rise it becomes a public issue that needs to be explained (M. Harambolos & M.

    • Word count: 2034

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