• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Critically review and discuss the pressures that have emerged from the recent enlargement rounds for the reforms of the EU structural policy.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Critically review and discuss the pressures that have emerged from the recent enlargement rounds for the reforms of the EU structural policy. The creation of the European Union was to form a group of nation states who would forge close economic, political and social interests together. However, with this in mind, the idea of a EU can only really be considered feasible if the member states are able to maintain a sufficient level of economic and social cohesion. (Hannequart:1992:p1) As such, the Structural Policy was created with the intentions of lessening the gap in economic development and standards of living between member states. Furthermore, the European Social Fund measures other cohesion policies which were then introduced over the years, each with a specific aim. The European Community created the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund to help financially support the Common Agricultural Policy, the European Regional Development Fund and the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance. (Hannequart:1992:p1) In this essay I will be discussing the European Unions Structural Policy and the reasons behind why it was set up. Moving on from this I will look at the Funds available to member states of the EU, for example the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund. I will also discuss the EU's three objectives of the Structural Policy. In the second part of my essay, I will look at how enlargement has posed a severe challenge for the EU structural and cohesion policies, before assessing how the European Union has prepared itself for this through its set up of Agenda 2000. ...read more.

Middle

(Commission of the European Communities:2001:p9). Arnell and Wincott further claim that "if the rate of regional convergence in the applicant countries were to be similar estimated to that across the EU15 over the past decade or so, it would take at least two generations for the increased regional income gap created by enlargement to be halved." (Arnell and Wincott: 2002:p361) This is because it was necessary to assess what the current states economically and socially the new member states of the EU are in and as such, whether the EU27 has differed from the EU15. Not only do the new member states of the EU differ hugely in their economies and social cohesiveness but the EU almost doubled its members, causing huge strains on the budget, not only for pre accession assistance but also to then continue to aid the new member states once having joined the EU. Despite the growth rates in the Central Eastern European Countries being above the EU15 average, economic convergence has been low. The most positive macro economic indications are from Poland, Slovenia, Hungry and the Czech and Slovak Republics, there have still been labour market changes have occurred because of economic restructuring, liberalisation and privatisation. Examples include a decline in industrial employment whilst service sector employment rose. Income levels and the Standard of Living has fallen whilst poverty has spread vastly. Rapid industrialisation, inefficient raw material extraction and a lack of environmental controls have left the environment degraded and pollution levels so high the cost of the clean up is evident. ...read more.

Conclusion

In conclusion, enlargement has expanded the scale of disparities regionally within the EU. The accession of Central and Eastern European Countries has widened the gap between the richer and poorer states in the EU. The sheer diversity politically, economically and socially in the member states across the enlarged EU ha raised corresponding challenges for the EU to reform the Structural Policy. Agenda 2000, although not a brilliant success did prepare, up to a certain extent the EU for enlargement and the EU was more prepared for the accession of member states as a result, perhaps now that enlargement has occurred a re think of Structural Policy and its operation should happen. Arnull, Anthony and Wincott Daniel 2002 "Accountability and Legitimacy in the European Union" Oxford University Press Begg Iain 1999 "EU Investment Grants Review" Published by World Bank Publications Commission of the European Communities 2001 "Unitary, Solidarity and Diversity for Europe, its people and its territory. " Second Report, Volume 1 Europa website www.europa.co.uk Date accesed 10th March 2009 European Commission annual report 2002 "The Instrument for Structural Policy for Pre-Accession (ISPA) ." Published by Official Publications of the European Communities, Garc´┐Ża, Jorge. Clayton, Jess. Hobley, Christopher 2004 "The student's guide to European integration: for students, by students" Blackwell Hooghe, Liesbet 1996 "Cohesion policy and European integration: building multi-level governance." Oxford University Press Henderson, Karen 1999 "Back to Europe: Central and Eastern Europe and the European Union" Routledge Publishings. Hannequart Achille 1992 "Economic and Social Cohesion in Europe: A New Objective for Integration" Routledge Warleigh, Alex 2003 "Democracy and the European Union: Theory, Practice and Reform" SAGE ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree International Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree International Politics essays

  1. EU regulation on the prevention and correction of macroeconomic imbalances

    the set of elements that form the basis of national fiscal governance (accounting systems, statistics, forecasting practices, fiscal rules, budgetary procedures and fiscal relations with other entities such as local or regional authorities). The directive sets out minimum requirements to be followed by Member States.

  2. How has the success of the Extreme Right in France come about and what ...

    Even Le Pen's own daughter, Marine Le Pen, has stated that Sarkozy won as a result of the ideas of Le Pen, and that Sarkozy was Le Pen-lite (Hewlett 2010 p51). Academics have also argued in part that the French Exception is due to the electoral system in place.

  1. The impact of past and present enlargement on the institutions and decision-making structures of ...

    As well it is the forum in which the member-state representatives with diverse policy objective come together and negotiate. These interactions and subsequent outputs define the nature of EU policies and therefore the direction of European integration. After years of disagreement and ineffective declarations, the 1987 Single European Act (SEA),

  2. Despite the high hopes of a decade ago, post-communist Russia has clearly not emerged ...

    Thus, with the aid of models of democratic transition this work will establish the core reasons as to why Russia has not emerged as a liberal democracy and thus hope to provide a definitive analysis of the question posed. Models Sanford Lakoff, in his detailed analysis of democratic reform, provides

  1. Environmental Displacement. The issue of environmental refugees has been given a lot of attention ...

    The available data on refugees and their movements are not exhaustive or very authentic; primarily because there are so many varied categories and definitions in the context of environmental refugees. Black (2001) has categorically held that the focus placed on issues of environmental refugees by different entities and on different

  2. EU Enlargement and Turkey

    European Parliament, the Member States, and other groups in society complement and reinforce each other. The process For half a century, the European Union has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. Most of the time, the two processes took place in parallel.

  1. Did economic growth during the Chinese Economic Reform contribute to human development?

    After the government adopted the open door policy in the Reform, its foreign trade grew rapidly as the volume of imports increased largely and exports rose shortly afterwards. Chinese imports have grown from US $1.09 billion in 1975 to US $4.23 billion in 1985 and reached US $13.21 billion in 1995.

  2. The Functions of the European Commission and How Well it Carries Them Out

    If the commission deems that a member state has contravened European Union law, there are certain measures it takes to amend this. First it will send out an official letter, asking the member state in question to correct this and adhere to EU law.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work