• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the legislation that promotes the protection of children.

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐According to the NSPCC one child will get killed every week by their parents or carer in England and Wales.7 % of children experience severe physical abuse at the hands of their parents or carers. Every week one to two children will die following cruelty. Babies under one are 4 times more likely to die of a violent death than the average person in England and Wales. 6% of children experience frequent and severe emotional maltreatment during childhood .16 % experience serious maltreatment by parents of whom one third experience more than one type of maltreatment.18% of children experience some absence of care during childhood.1% of children experience sexual abuse by their parents or carer and 3% by a relative .11% experience sexual abuse by people known to them but not related and a further 5% by an adult stranger or someone whom they just met [lantern project 2008] Neglect is the most common form of child abuse in the Uk. Neglect can be defined as the persistent failure to meet a child?s basic physical and or psychological needs likely to result in the serious impairment of the child?s health or development .it may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food ,shelter and clothing ,failing to protect a child from physical harm or danger or the failure to insure access to appropriate medical care or treatment .It may also include neglect of or unresponsiveness to, a child?s basic emotional needs [DOH ET AL 1999]P6]. ...read more.


moral panic about children as perpetrators of crime led to the government introducing The Crime and Disorders Act 1998 .The Misspent youth reported that the legislation at that time relating to young people who offend were was inefficient ,uneconomic as it cost 1billion per year and ineffective. It also proposed that court processes be speeded up persistent offenders be more closely monitored, programmes involving victims and addressing offending behaviour be used as an alternative to the court process, parenting programmes, structured education for under five, support for dealing for teachers with badly behaving pupils and positive leisure opportunities to be developed and evaluated . the report also recommended that there should be better information sharing ,and local authorities ,should lead,multi agency work?? (yjb1)The white paper No more excuses proposed that a clear strategy to prevent offending and re offending ,parents and offenders should take responsibility for and face up ,up to offending behaviour earlier and more effective interventions when young people offend, final warning?s instead of repeat cautions ,new action plan ,reparations and parenting orders faster more efficient procedures from arrest to sentence and reform of youth court procedures a new national network of of youth offending teams providing programmes to stop offending behaviour (yjb2) .The Crime and Disorder Act 1998 received royal ascent in July 1998.This was widely praised at the time it came out .Section 37 of the Act establishes that preventing offending by children and young people ...read more.


plans were 7 to 10 % lower than 1997 but with higher tariff persistent offender?s there was no difference in re-conviction rate .Young offenders are dealt with more quickly .The audit also found that young offenders were less likely to offend while on bail in 1994 1 in 3 offenders committed a crime while on bail in 2003 it was 1 In 5.The report found that ISSPs were more constructive and cost effective option for persistent young offenders than time in custody for 6 months cost 25 400 and ISSP for 6 months cost8 500.However in 2004 a report by Oxford university on ISSP found that 85% reconvicted 12 months after starting .The report ten years of labour justice reforms :an independent audit centre for crime and justice found that the YJB achievement in in reducing crime is at best mixed ??(p7) and that there has been little difference in offending by young people since 1997.Initially the government claimed that had achieved a reduction of reconviction by 22.2% against the 5% target but was later changed to 7.7% however doubts were raised by criminologist Anthony Bottoms and James Dignan about the methods used .An investigation by the Home Office revealed the actual figure was only 2.4% If the crime and disorder act was removed there would be less young people in juvenile custody .UK would be in compliance with the uncrc there would be less violation of human rights . ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Criminology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Criminology essays

  1. How can research and evidence based practice inform effective interventions with substance misusing offenders?

    In one study, shoplifting declined by 50%. Economic and social benefits of the scheme are around 4.4 billion over an eight year period. (Sondi et al, 2002; O'Shea et al (2003) found a wide variety of working practices which means that at present service users are not receiving equality of service levels across the UK.

  2. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of youth justice policies in England and Wales since ...

    Then there is the Local child curfew which is for the Childs own good and to stop neighbourhood crime and disorder and states that children should not be out without supervision at night.

  1. Stratagies for Tacling Offending Behaviour.

    the community there are large differences between offending behavioural programmes offered by the NPS and those offered by clinical psychologists.

  2. What are the aims of the Youth Justice System in England and Wales. How ...

    'No more excuses' (1997) also proposed the YJS should strive to improve awareness of the system and improve public confidence by reducing fear of crime. Hough and Roberts (2003) discovered that although youth crime has not increased in recent years, three out of four believed it had.

  1. Critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of the multi agency public protection arrangements. (MAPPA)

    explains that the core agencies that provide the foundation of MAPPA are marked by very different training, occupational socialisation, philosophies, and working practises. These contrasting aspects can cause completion between the agencies, which can be manifested in the form of mutual suspicion and distrust, negative views of partner organisations and agencies jealously guarding their independence.

  2. Sexual Offences and Offending Behaviour. Critically compare and contrast the public notification/disclosure programmes currently ...

    Meloy et al (2007, p. 438) highlight that one of the main areas of criticisms regarding public notification/disclosure programmes relates to the effects of public shaming of sex offenders, which may hinder their social reintegration. In the USA it is reported that stigma associated with community notification/disclosure may inadvertently increase

  1. Imprisonment should only be used as a last resort due to its long-term negative ...

    post incarceration; anti-social personality traits, as coping mechanisms of incarceration and social sensory deprivation syndrome, caused by lack of social contact (Grassian, 1983). The assemblage of this condition leads to substance use disorders that allegedly help to manage the effects of PICS Symptoms (Grassian, 1983).

  2. Critically evaluate the current methods employed in the Sex Offender Treatment Programmes (SOTP). Include ...

    moral panic often caused by the media?s depiction of this type of offence. The fight against sex offending however has the tendency to be high on the government?s agenda as they argue sexual crime and in particular the fear of sexual crime has a profound and damaging effect on the social fabric of communities (Home Office, 2006, Pg 7).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work