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Female Criminality Criminology has predominantly been the study of men by men and many of the theories of crime fail to explain female offending and

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Introduction

Everpool College Newsletter Gillian Dickinson Volume 1 03.05.04 Principles of Criminology and the Origins of Criminology There is a H.N.C. Criminology course now available at Everpool College. The course focuses on the Principles of Criminology, Criminal justice Environment, Psychology of Crime and Policing. Offering various theories that attempt to explain why crime occurs. The object of criminology is to determine the causes of criminal behaviour. The role of a Criminologist is to identify key issues and behaviour patterns. From this they formulate crime reduction measures in an attempt to make changes in society. Female Criminality Criminology has predominantly been the study of men by men and many of the theories of crime fail to explain female offending and has therefore been accused of suffering from 'male biased'. What are the possible reasons for neglecting to research and provide explanations for female criminality? Could it be that women tend to be more passive, and commit far fewer crimes in comparison to men? Therefore they are perceived as less of a problem for society. Females are less likely to commit crime because of the closer levels of supervision that they are subjected to at home in childhood (Moore, 2002). This 'patriarchal' control carries on throughout life, with the role of women being more constrained than that of males. ...read more.

Middle

It concluded that 'many people currently being sentenced could be dealt with effectively by a non- custodial sentence'. The Chief Inspector of Prisons, Sir David Ramsbottom, told the committee that 'perhaps 70% of women and 30-40% of young offenders did not need to be in prison' (Martin, 2002). There is support for the view that women who are single, divorced or who have children in care are more likely to receive a custodial sentence than women who have a stable home life. Many women prisoners are mothers, 55% have 1 child under 16, a third of which are under 5 (Martin, 2002). The statistics suggests a hidden element of discrimination against women who are thought to be failing in their traditional roles in society. Causes of female offending Crime can only occur the element of opportunity exists. Women, compared to men will have fewer opportunities to commit crimes if they have a home life and children to look after. Women may commit fewer crimes than young men because they are less likely to have full-time paid work and more likely to have full-time responsibilities within the home. Freda Adler, (1975) claimed that the contribution to female crime was the result of Women's Liberation. ...read more.

Conclusion

Almost all women criminologists or criminologists of women who examine gender and crime have addressed the "gender ratio" problem - why women are less likely, and men more likely, to commit crime? Many feminist perspectives have been developed because of the lack of explanatory theories for understanding female criminality. These are: > Liberal Feminism- This perspective is based on the concept of bringing bringing women onto the agenda by demonstrating how women have been ignored in research. It aims to provide greater understanding of female deviance. In particular, new theories can be developed, that will cover both male and female crime. > Radical feminism- This perspective looks at how women came to occupy subservient roles in the first place, what male power consists of, and how societies themselves can be transformed. Radical feminist Criminologists are also of the view that the only way to understand crime is to see it through a female perspective. > Socialist Feminism- Offers ideas about more equitable roles for women as sex providers, child bearers, nursemaids, and homemakers, so that they can take their rightful place in society. > Postmodern feminism- Writers such as Carol Smart (1990) proposed that the very concerns of criminology (burglary/street crime, etc) are actually a reflection of male concerns, and that women should be looking beyond these to consider how harm comes to women. Opposed to accepting the 'male' boundaries that other theories offer. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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