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University Degree: Human & Social Geography

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  1. Sustainable Development critique

    An example of what would constitute unsustainable behaviour could be our current dependency on fossil fuels such as coal and gas to achieve economic growth, the future climatic change attributed (by many) to this behaviour will have negative impacts on the environment that may reduce the potential output and growth of future generations. The lack of a clear, universally accepted definition for the term is one of the key reasons that it is considered by some as a meaningless concept.

    • Word count: 1241
  2. What is Epistemology?

    With careful scrutiny, philosophers attempt to differentiate truth from belief and appearances. Epistemology aims to provide a foundation for what we consider to be true knowledge. Many of the most important philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle maintained that knowledge is possible. Their epistemology rested on the ability to clearly differentiate between appearance and reality. For Plato, this epistemology was famously illustrated through his theory of forms. Aristotle's epistemology asserted that true knowledge could be attained through the examination of cause and effect, combined with the application of reason and logic.

    • Word count: 1628
  3. disabled service user

    To maintain a professional relationship with disabled users it is important to inform them of their rights and treat them with respect at all times and keep them informed of the progress of the case on a constant basis. Trust needs to build up by being honest and reliable, empathizing with the service user to understand his or her situation. It is essential to make the service user feel comfortable and understood and listened to. (GSCC code of practice 2006)

    • Word count: 1911
  4. Consider critically the arguments for and against the value of relative as opposed to absolute income as a key determinant of health

    In this essay I will explore the factors for and against each theory and how each influences individual health. Evidence has always led to the fact that a low level of health is often attributed to low levels of income. As argued by Kathryn Neckerman (2004; 524) evidence "predicts that if the increase in inequality has led to a decrease in the income of those at the bottom end of the income distribution, then we would expect some decline in their health and hence an increase in inequality in health".

    • Word count: 1910
  5. Darfur and the peace agreement.

    The Wall Street Journal's article, "The Devil in Darfur," focused on the superior role that America and the Bush Administration played in the progress of the peace agreement over the roles nations' such as France and Sweden played. In regards to the future outlook of the peace deal, it was reported that, "It sounds promising, and if it sticks it will be a diplomatic triumph for the Bush Administration, which has so far provided $1 billion in humanitarian aid to the deal" ("The Devil in Darfur"). This statement highlights America's innate sense of self-importance in regards to policing international crises.

    • Word count: 1259
  6. Free essay

    The Right to Food

    The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) in 1966 made the right to food more explicit, declaring both the 'right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food' (article 11 paragraph 1), and also the 'right of everyone to be free from hunger' (article 11 paragraph 2) (in Alston 1984). The Covenant affirms that states must devote 'the maximum available resources' to realizing these rights, although this is not clearly defined, and is open to contestation (Robertson 1996).

    • Word count: 1681
  7. Qu caracterstica es ms importante en un historiador: la capacidad de analizar pruebas de manera cientfica, o la capacidad de elaborar interpretaciones a partir de las pruebas existentes utilizando la imaginacin creativa?

    Primero quiero partir diciendo que la capacidad de analizar pruebas y la capacidad imaginativa son muy importantes para una reconstrucci�n hist�rica, me refiero a que es complicado referirse a una como mejor que la otra, pero ya que este es el objetivo del ensayo no me limitare a justificar a ambas como iguales o finalmente no decidirme por ninguna. La historia es la ciencia que tiene como objeto de estudio el pasado de la humanidad, por lo tanto el trabajo del historiador se remite a eso, gui�ndose en el m�todo de las ciencias sociales, pero es justo en esto donde

    • Word count: 1268
  8. What obstacles faced the 19th century public health movement, and how far were they overcome?

    Cholera is carried in infected water, but no one knew this for certain until the end of the 1860s. The first confirmed case of cholera in Britain occurred in September 1831. Over the next 30 years or so, Britain was invaded by four of the pandemics of cholera that had spread from Bengal since the early 19th century and suffered epidemics in 1831-1832, 1848-1849, 1853-1854 and 1866. Cholera was not as persistent or as frequent in its attacks as other infectious diseases but was remarkable for its high mortality rate and the speed at which it could kill. Britain had known for some time that cholera was moving towards its national boundaries.

    • Word count: 1436
  9. Critically discuss the usefulness of the three individual visions(TM) of social psychology.

    This nomothetic approach tries to establish the fundamental cause-effect laws that underlie human social behaviour. It looks for causation; not simply correlation. (Looks for the direct effects of one variable on another -- rather than a mere relationship between/among variables. McGhee,P (1996) Causal relationships though, can only be discovered through carefully controlled empirical experiments through a sterile environment. Once L-Dopa was administered at 5.0gm a day, there was a conversion, the majority of his higher faculties returned; rigidity vanished, voluntary movement and his speech returned.

    • Word count: 1734
  10. ecological footprint

    Our way of life is placing an increasing burden on the planet and this can certainly not be sustained. To be sustainable, nature's resources must only be used at a rate which they can be replenished naturally. Scientific evidence shows now that humanity is living in n unsustainable way. Humans are consuming the Earth's limited natural resources more rapidly than they are being replaced by nature. Now a human effort to keep human use of natural resources within the sustainable development aspect of the Earth's finite resource limits is now an issue of huge importance to the present and future of humanity.

    • Word count: 1245
  11. Market failure

    Consequently, in order to survive, economic agents tend to make decisions of resource usage based on private costs and benefits to themselves, overlooking the critical affects of social costs followed by their actions, known as externalities. For example, when two businesses sell the same product, they compete for customers by lowering the costs of production, using the cheapest resources available, so their profits will grow. Many factories establish themselves in developing countries where they use cheap labour, avoid paying environmental control costs, such as waste clean up, dump chemical waste into rivers and pollute the atmosphere with gases, which are called environmental externalities.

    • Word count: 1241
  12. Moral Panic

    Furthermore, it is common practice for middle-aged in every generation to believe their early years were much safer then today's and the young generation who are responsible for the decline of morality and increase of crime (Pearson, 1983). However, a letter written by Daniel Defoe in 1730 to the Mayor of London, not only proves that our society has always been characterized by a culture of fear and fascination about crime, but also suggest that panic over crime has existed in the past when he wrote: "The whole city...is alarm'd and uneasy...the citizens are no longer secure within their own walls or safe...in passing their streets...The citizens are oppressed by Rapin and Violence" (Defoe, 1730, quoted in Reiner, 1996, p.2)

    • Word count: 1019
  13. Free essay

    The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Reasoning and Evidence

    The fossil record is one mean of evidence that shows how evolution is occurring (Shermer 9). The fossil record shows an eventual change in the remains of species. There are similarities that can be found between Neanderthals and primates. They both have opposable thumbs which are necessary in picking up objects or to prevent the species in using their hands when they are walking upright. The opposable thumb makes humans and apes and other species of similarity some of the handiest in the world.

    • Word count: 1886
  14. on something new under the sun

    Aunque su argumento no es nuevo, sino que aparece en distintos campos _desde el periodismo hasta los libros m�s acad�micos_ constantemente, aqu� se pretende hacer una especie de recorrido a vista de p�jaro para tratar de encontrar las claves que explican nuestra compleja y fr�gil situaci�n actual. Desde el punto de vista estil�stico, creo que es un acierto que McNeill evite caer en el tono moralizante y catastrofista que muchos autores utilizar�an para tratar temas como estos, y de hecho la ausencia de moralina hace que el impacto de su mensaje sea mayor.

    • Word count: 1741
  15. international immigration

    He attributed such misgivings to the cultural differences and the concern about foreigners competing for local jobs. Sherif & Sherif (1969) suggested in his realistic group conflict theory that when two groups are in competition for scarce resources, the potential success of one group threatens the well-being of the other, resulting in negative outgroup attitudes. The conflict of interest between Singaporeans and talented immigrants in competing for jobs may lead to Singaporean's discrimination and prejudice against immigrants. This theory premises on the perception of competition and not on whether the actual competition over resource does exist. Drawn on this theory, the Instrumental Model of Group Conflict (Esses, et al, 1998)

    • Word count: 1136
  16. Immigration (Singapore)

    This allows the immigrant the freedom of linguistic and cultural activities, religious expression, and political association within the confines of Singapore's criminal and civil laws. Singapore is a multi-racial society. Different races live in harmony with each other. It is quite an amazing spectacle for immigrants to see the public display of different religious celebrations in Singapore streets. Unlike the civic ideology that advocate non-interference in private values of its individual citizens, Singapore respect and promote the rights of individual in maintaining their group distinctiveness through cultural, linguistic, ethnic, or religious affiliation.

    • Word count: 1254
  17. How, and why, did trends in these two fields vary between states?

    But there are many underlying factors that influenced not only the reduction in deaths but also the increase in births in some European states in the 19th century. However, it would appear when looking at statistics from this period, that although birth rates rose in some states, overall they actually didn't increase greatly throughout Europe, meaning that death rates must have decreased considerably in order for the population to have grown as it did. (Open university Economy 2003) There were many factors that affected the decrease in mortalities; perhaps one of the most significant in the second part of the

    • Word count: 1877
  18. There are four key concepts of globalization, Stretched social relations, Rationalisation, Intensification and Interpenetration. Stretched social relations are the existence of cultural, economic and political

    There are three main approaches to globalization, globalist, traditionalist and tranformationalist. Globalists believe that globalization is uncontrollable by humans and cannot be resisted. Social processes have been affected greatly by globalization and now operate at a global scale. Global interdependence makes national boundaries less important. Local and national differences become less important, and produce a more uniform global culture and economy. Within globalists there are optimists and pessimists. Positive globalists see globalization as ultimately leading to us all being world citizens through communication and therefore understanding each other's cultures and nations.

    • Word count: 1449
  19. This essaywill discuss orthodox models of development and theRadical Dependency Theory. It will outline the main critiques of theModernisation and Radical Dependency Theories, together with the responses tosuch criticisms.

    'Underdevelopment' was in contrast characterised by 'traditional' cultural practices and values which were labelled as 'back-ward' (Waitt et al., 2000). This equated Westernisation with economic development and is the epitome of ethnocentrism. The argument that Modernity is one-dimensional can be seen in the use of classifying 'developed' nations by their level of Gross National Product. This lacks a broader view as the Gross National Product of a country is seriously deficient as a measure of economic activity as it does not take into consideration the distribution of wealth, environmental factors, health, quality of life or sustainability (Turner et al. 1994).

    • Word count: 1839
  20. Did Geography Matter

    Climate can affect both work ethic and worker productivity. If it is too hot or too cold workers can become lethargic and lose the will to work therefore decreasing economic growth and development. For example in India where there is a very hot climate and levels of real GDP pre person as a percentage of the U.S has decreased from 21.8 in 1870 to 7.0 in 2001. Climate also has a bearing on disease environment that can have an impact on institutions and agricultural production. This is recognised by Acemoglu Johnson and Robinson.

    • Word count: 1358
  21. Although it is very important that children develop knowledge and understanding as well as skills relating to sustainability, it is more beneficial to develop informed attitudes to maintain sustainable development

    For example, financial mechanisms, the role of science, laws, raising public awareness and the communication of relevant information between all agencies. Most if not all of what agenda 21 is trying to achieve relates to what is already in the National 5-14 Guidelines for Environmental studies, which includes science and technology. Although it is very important that children develop knowledge and understanding as well as skills relating to sustainability, it is more beneficial to develop informed attitudes to maintain sustainable development and interdependence not only within the school setting but outside it as well.

    • Word count: 1624
  22. Examine the argument that poverty is best explained in terms of personal moral failings.

    Globally one of the major causes of ill health is malnutrition, which is an issue of poverty rather than an indicator of food shortages. As a result of malnutrition people are more susceptible to infectious and chronic diseases, and statistics show that malnutrition contributes up to one half of deaths among children in developing countries. In addition, more than 1 billion people in developing countries live without adequate shelter, more than 2.9 billion have no access to minimum standards of sanitation and 1.3 billion lack access to safe water and as a result 80 per cent of illnesses are caused by contaminated drinking water.

    • Word count: 1513
  23. GNP per Capita, Population Growth and Age Structure.

    Taking into account all of the countries and indicators (mentioned in the first paragraph), I took a range of averages to see how greatly all the countries differed. Population Population growth GNP Population >65 GpC Mean 54431.1 2.3 371503.3 6.4 5940.4 Median 14257.5 2.5 16054.0 4.3 1757.6 Standard Dev 151453.4 1.3 1180394.4 4.8 8453.6 Maximum 935744.0 5.0 7100007.0 17.3 27605.3 Minimum 378.0 0.2 341.0 2.4 40.6 As you can see this takes into account all the data given, there are huge differences between the population in different countries India being the highest (935744)

    • Word count: 1559
  24. Critically evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the Tucurui Dam Project in Brazil - Do you feel that this scheme was justified?

    However, the locals are yet to see this prospect in action. The construction of the locks was hobbled by a shortage of funding, and ground to a halt in 1989, the remaining parts for the lock system were said to be completed with Phase II of the project. Yet uncertainty loiters over Phase II construction schedule, with relation to the building of the locks. Additionally, although the communities around the area of the complex anticipated that the project would stimulate the development of the region, shockingly they did not receive electricity from the project until 1997, when, only as a consequence of intense pressure from local groups, a step-down substation was constructed to cater for the locals.

    • Word count: 1445
  25. How valuable are international league tables of GDP per head as indicators of relative standards of living?

    GDP may also be measured as the total value added by each firm and govt. department in the economy. GDP can be measured at basic prices or at market prices. GDP does have its advantages in that it is universally used, and therefore makes it easy to compare the GDP of different countries quite easily using numerical values. Despite some of the advantages, there are also disadvantages. One discrepancy which occurs in the use of GDP is in the conversion of local currency into the $ equivalent using the official exchange rate may misrepresent the actual purchasing power in the local economy because of complex forces in foreign exchange markets.

    • Word count: 1676

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