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University Degree: Human & Social Geography

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  1. Literature Review - Sustainable Livelihoods.

    Barraclough has written many books (some in Spanish) on forests, livelihoods and food security. His co-author Ghimire is currently (at date of publication) Project Leader at the UNRISD involving global research programmes on environmental and social change. He has also been involved with agrarian research and rural development, and has also written a number of books on such topics. Their Chapter on strategies for sustainable livelihoods is fairly simple in structure. They have an introductory section where they briefly consider the success of current implications and the role of different actors in the sustainability of Livelihoods.

    • Word count: 1536
  2. Explore the meaning of 'sustainable development' in the Southeast Asian context. Can one make a case for a distinctively Southeast Asian definition of this concept?

    However, conceptualising sustainable development is in itself problematic, as it is likely to mean different things to different people at different stages in development. Southeast Asia, with its trends of rapid economic growth and large-scale environmental degradation, provides an excellent contextual base from which to explore the meaning of sustainable development. The region is exemplary in displaying requirements for more 'sustainable' development methods and processes in the midst of the rapidity of political, environmental and economic change. It is also a region within which to analyse what Parnwell and Bryant describe as the "intensely political nature of sustainable development-from its initial definition to its attempted implementation."

    • Word count: 4074
  3. Critically access the importance of community involvement to community regeneration initiatives within urban rundown areas?

    The essay will then explore what at present is being done to tackle the problems. To conclude, it will examine how regeneration organisations continue to make a substantial contribution to the process of social, economic and physical renewal of disadvantaged neighbourhoods. 'The term community involvement can be defined so that; the word community is taken to mean those people living and/or working in the immediate vicinity. Community involvement is taken to mean the active participation of local residents or community groups in planning, designing or implementing schemes to regenerate disadvantaged or declining areas.'

    • Word count: 2213
  4. Discuss the feasibility of government-initiated population control policies in the third world.

    Proponents of this particular doctrine point to the history of western countries, stating that many of these countries experienced large increases in population which were beneficial in terms of speeding up their economic development. It is believed that this happens because 'larger populations provide the needed consumer demand to generate favourable economies of scale in production, to lower production costs, and to provide a sufficient and low-cost labour supply to achieve higher output levels.'_ The stabilisation in population now generally experienced in the above countries is believed to be a direct result of the benefits which accrue as a result

    • Word count: 1714
  5. A developmental study of two Arab countries, both historically abundant in political and economic turmoil and major upheavals in economic development strategies - Egypt and Turkey.

    The main idea of the new regime was the centrally planned economy - ISI program. The growth record was impressive under the first two five-year plans (1963-1967 and 1968-1972). During this period industry's share in GDP rose from 16.2% to 22.6%. Public investment and public consumption grew rapidly. The emphasis on heavy, capital-intensive industry increased. 1This growth was in part a consequence of Turkey's associate membership of the European Economic Community, which allowed Turkish workers to immigrate to Western Europe, where they were welcomed at the bottom level of the workforce. The remittances of these workers became important to the Turkish balance of trade.

    • Word count: 3825
  6. What conclusions for the role of population in economic development can we draw from the British industrialisation experience?

    The immense enquiry led by Professor Wrigley and Dr Schofield has revealed that the increase in Great Britain was mainly caused by natural rates of growth, not by immigration; further to this, it has revealed that the impact of rising fertility was far greater than that of declining mortality in explaining the rise in population, more particularly after 1750. Until the mid- eighteenth century changes in fertility and mortality were of roughly equal influence, but thereafter fertility had twice or more than twice the effect of falling mortality.

    • Word count: 929
  7. Explore the emergence of environmental debates in development theory over the last fifty years.

    Europe, Japan and Russia in particular had experienced large-scale destruction and needed to rebuild and strengthen their economies. The ideology of economic development through industrialisation (Keynes' system of global economic management) became the hegemonic model upon which the operations of governments and transnational corporations were based, overriding cultural, religious and social traditions. President Truman of the United States summarised the objectives of the development project in his inaugural address in January 1949, suggesting "a program of development based on the concepts of democratic fair dealing" and "a wider and more vigorous application of modern scientific and technical knowledge" (Escobar, 1995).

    • Word count: 2320
  8. A dedicated Cruise Terminal as part of the Port & Airport Developmentin Hong Kong.

    The main measure of the value of an industry to the economy is its contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). According to the Visitor and Tourism Study for Hong Kong, the value-added contribution of tourism industry to GDP in 1993 was 7.9%3. The tourism industry is a major contributor to the economy of Hong Kong. The cruise market is an upcoming high-yield sector of the industry which has good potential for development and growth. 4. Market Situation for Cruise Industry 4.1 Strengths 4.1.1 The Port of Hong Kong is popular for turnarounds, more than 60 international cruise ships call at Hong Kong each year.

    • Word count: 4145
  9. Critically assess the theories of uneven development.

    Left-wing or radical also believe that inequalities arise through the process of capitalism, and that these inequalities are actively promoted by capitalist firms and workings. The left-wing believes that the inequalities are kept constant because they are important to the capitalist powers and that these inequalities do not disappear through a process of convergence or through the natural process of economic forces. The theories of (uneven) development were born from the writings (and opposing views) of Albert Hirschman and Gunnar Mydral.

    • Word count: 1277
  10. What is meant by amnagement du territoire in post-war France?

    The concept of am´┐Żnagement du territoire was born in the United States to counter the effects of the economic crisis that hit the country in the 1930's4. The term literally translates as "land planning" and only became a focus of the French government after the conclusion of World War II. Prior to this time responsibility for land planning had been a regional rather than centralised affair and while the national government was concentrated in Paris, the rest of the nation's affairs were the responsibility of the 90 prefectures5.

    • Word count: 2638
  11. Discuss the policies of theODA/DfID in relation to gender theory . (short title)

    One of the multitude of agencies that is involved in a range of projects in the Third World is the Overseas Development Administration. The ODA, a part of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, manages Britain's aid programme to around 140 developing countries worldwide. The ODA works in partnership with governments of developing countries, with international organizations and with voluntary agencies in Britain and overseas. With the aim of reducing poverty worldwide, the ODA works to create sustainable, lasting development through projects, finance, advice, training and research.

    • Word count: 2559
  12. The Difficulties in Comparing the Standard of living between countries.

    and Engel's Law and Index of Social Health. In Section ?, I will exposit how exchange rate influences the standard of living comparison. The Section ? presents the difficulties in comparing living standard in the non-balance development countries. Last, I conclude a few summary observations. ?. Alternative Measures of Standard of Living To compare the standard of living between countries is similar to choose the most beautiful flower, that is, different person has different yardsticks. Put various kinds of beautiful flowers in front of people's eyes and asking for the answer of the most beautiful flower.

    • Word count: 2861
  13. NIMBYism in Maidenhead - The Matrix Skate Park.

    Originally it was a moderate sized park with benches and access routes to the local housing. When plans were put forward to the public in 2000, there were mixed feelings about the idea. Due to the fact that the local residents were a selection of ages and backgrounds individuals had very contrasting emotions and opinions about what should be done to the land. Families with young children generally claimed they were concerned about the Skatepark from the beginning as they felt it would diminish the area and create worries about allowing their children to walk through the park without the supervision of an adult present.

    • Word count: 5692
  14. The Third World. Is poverty really the problem?

    In this respect we must start with the bare facts; examine the trading, economic and domestic structures of what we loosely term, for means of convenience, countries in the Third World: ie those countries outside of the former eastern bloc, the europeanised West plus Japan. The factors of commodity prices and value added manufacturing have long been an area of contoversy between the industrialised nations and the largely Third World primary producers. For instance, Malaysia exports palm oil to its main trading partner the European Community duty free.

    • Word count: 3067
  15. What are the main issues that choices must be made on before one can arrive at clear statements about trends in world poverty and world income distribution?

    The answer to the question is 'yes'5. Various studies on trends in poverty and inequality yield conflicting results. Given the extremely diverging views on how poverty and inequality should be measured, it is hardly possible to come to any clear statements about what the trends are. To compare and contrast measurement methodologies, in detail, however, is not the scope of this essay. It rather, focuses on the contentions that lie between their conflicting results, on one hand, and the major issues that revolve around the debate, on the other. This essay also focuses on the causes shaping up the mass and magnitude of inequality and asserts that international public policy requires change in face of glaring realities. (1)

    • Word count: 2135
  16. The majority of people in the developing world earn their living from agriculture and the key to economic development is therefore to raise agricultural productivity, discuss.

    To produce enough food for everyone in 2020, we must increase world food supplies by 50 percent. Food surpluses produced by developed countries cannot reach many of the people who need them in the developing world. Developing countries may not have enough income to pay for food imports. Additionally, many of the world's poor and hungry live where there are no roads or other infrastructure to deliver the food to the needy. These people are best helped if they are enabled to grow their own nourishment.

    • Word count: 2570
  17. The Human Development Index is a very poor indicator of country progress, but the alternatives are worse.

    Today, human development is defined in broader social and political goals, than was the case with the "Washington Consensus'" (Stiglitz) when crude and narrow measures of GNP/capita, and economic growth was more or less equated with a better life. However, as will be seen in the definitions of relative and absolute poverty, this is not necessarily indicative of well-being and welfare which are shown by higher levels of capabilities and functioning. To give an example, in Kerala, India the GNP/capita is much lower than many other Indian states, yet life expectancy there is much higher, and literacy rates are comparables to those of MDCs.

    • Word count: 2745
  18. To what extent does remoteness from the geographical core explain the distribution of problem regions in the EU?

    One question which needs to be answered is the concept of remoteness. In the context of this question I feel that remote does not necessarily relate to places 'in the middle of no where', but an area which has poor access to the core, or is too far from the core. The scale of how remote a place is has to be considered. For example people in London may consider parts of Surrey such as Cobham to be remote, but when this is put into context and on a European scale it is not as remote to the European core as parts of Portugal or Finland.

    • Word count: 1267
  19. Causes to Slow Economic Development in Less Developing Countries.

    Population Growth LDCs give a general impression that they experience a high to moderate population growth rate. There are exceptional cases where population growth rate is not very high compared to other LDCs; instead, the size of population may be very high. India and China are the best examples. LDCs usually have very high birth rate as well. In recent years, economists have begun to research in the microeconomic household theory of fertility. It is found that the conventional theory of consumer behaviour is applicable to the demand of children in a household. Especially in regions of high mortality, parents may produce more children than they actually desired simply because some may not survive.

    • Word count: 4181
  20. Is there a world population crisis? If so, what has caused it?

    whereas agricultural foodstuffs, necessary to the survival of man, increased in an arithmetical fashion (ie. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.). This observation lead Malthus to form the hypothesis that "the power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man"; hence proposing that if there isn't a population crisis now, there very shortly will be. Malthus's hypothesis can be supported by tracing back population growth over the years. In 1750, shortly before Malthus published his first essay, the worlds population was 0.8 billion people ("Population Geography", Huw Jones).

    • Word count: 2152
  21. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has identified the categories of "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" as two pillars of the Millennium Development Goals for the international community. Which category in your opinion is more important, and why?

    The global community has made countless efforts to increase the awareness of concerns regarding development. Issues regarding development within the pillar of "freedom from want" have presented themselves as a focus for developing countries and economically stable countries as well. The ideas valued within the pillar of "freedom of want," have been a continuous concern for many states within the global community. In General Annan's report regarding the declaration, "freedom from want" encompasses an array of objectives regarding development. In the past, the desires of dominant nations have prioritized issues of free trade and capitalism, but now the time has come for the UN to address the needs of its developing nations.

    • Word count: 1290
  22. A Pledge to Future Generations is a literary branch from Dr. Allen Tough's book; Crucial Questions About the Future.

    - Dr. Allen Tough 1. To care about the well-being of future generations. Their needs are just important as those of today. We must always when making decisions or choices of great importance focus on how it will affect our future generations. The future generations are the youth of today, our future children, our children's future children, and so on. Their decisions and actions will greatly influence the well-being of all of us who live after they do. So we must greatly focus on how we care for our future generations and most importantly create an enlightening environment so that they mature into responsible educated adults.

    • Word count: 1412
  23. What conclusions for the role of population in economic development can we draw from the British industrialisation experience?

    Malthus, however, believed the growth in numbers would always limit the living standards of the population at subsistence level. His argument, as put forth in his "Essay on the Principles of Population" (1798), was that, while food production could increase in an arithmetic ratio, the exponential growth of population would create increasing food prices, declining real wages and inevitably reach a point where the carrying capacity of the land would be outstripped by the number of people dependent on it. Here, "positive" checks would occur to reduce population such as famine, while "preventative" checks of voluntary constraint of early marriages would further alleviate the pressure, influenced by the relationship between living standards and real wages and nuptiality.

    • Word count: 1016
  24. How much does one learn about the state of inequality in a developing country by looking exclusively at the Gini coefficient

    Of course it is not perfect, as no other measure is, as it has few problems associated with it, which I address. Gini coefficient Gini coefficient was named after an Italian statistician and demographer Corrado Gini who pioneered studies of the measurable characteristics of populations. In this essay I will be mostly concentrating on distribution of income among citizens of a country. However it is worth mentioning at this stage that Gini can be used to measure distribution of other variables such as employment, healthcare, education, etc.

    • Word count: 3106
  25. Overpopulation.

    We are today a world of 6.2 billion people, growing by 78 million more each year. Ninety-seven percent of that growth occurs in the poorest countries - countries too often torn by civil strife and social unrest and where all too many survive on the equivalent of less than one U.S. dollar a day. Continuing high growth rates cannot be construed to mean that our generation is sexier than previous generations. Rapid population growth is primarily attributable to enormous strides in lowering mortality through medical breakthroughs, mass inoculations and sanitary improvements. We have been less successful, however, in making a wide variety of effective, efficient and affordable methods of family planning universally accessible.

    • Word count: 2749

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