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University Degree: International Politics

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 9
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    'All political parties are prey to the iron law of oligarchy.' Discuss

    5 star(s)

    Much of Michels 'iron rule' theory was influenced heavily by Karl Marx' philosophy on class rivalries, believing that in any capitalist society there would always be a ruling class of bureaucrats who controlled the state's resources, as he wrote 'the 'dominant' or 'political' class ..... consists the only factor of sufficiently durable efficacy in the history of human development.' 1 (Michels) This was an accepted fact up to the turn of the twentieth century; when ideals of aristocratic dominance were exchanged for ones of open democracy and the end of political inequalities.

    • Word count: 1936
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Why is the Common Agricultural Policy so difficult to reform?

    4 star(s)

    Despite its obvious decline the farming population in the EU remains significant. In France it is the fourth largest occupational group, and similar patterns are found in Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Italy3. Also taking active farmers, retired farmers, spouses of farmers, voting age children of farmers, and former farmers now in other occupations as constituting the combined agricultural contribution, then farmers as a percentage of the electorate rises to over 17% in France, and approaches that level in other EU states with large agricultural sectors4.

    • Word count: 1898
  3. Marked by a teacher

    'A gets B to do something that he or she would not otherwise do'. Does this sum up the essence of political power?

    4 star(s)

    This quote in the question doesn't refer to the intention of A in relation to the outcomes of the situation. Neither does it introduce the idea of others possessing power. While the quote makes no reference to the power of others, it does introduce two important elements of any definition of political power; a relationship and the removal of coincidence. In political situations, coincidence is hard to remove because to do this you must ensure that B wouldn't have acted in the same way regardless of A.

    • Word count: 2099
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Why is the single currency so important? Discuss with relation to issues of economic and political union.

    4 star(s)

    Many economists use the term 'eurosclerosis' to describe this slump in economic growth during the last twenty years. As a result of this, the importance of stability lies within its ability to drag the diverse currency base of Europe towards greater economic prosperity and to prevent a reoccurrence of eurosclerosis. Eichengreen and Wyplosz3 describe how the economic principal of creating stability and, as a result instilling confidence into businesses across Europe can provide the strong financial outlook the EU needs for long term growth.

    • Word count: 1872
  5. Marked by a teacher

    What evidence is there that the state is still the dominant actor in World Politics?

    4 star(s)

    This essay shall refer to and question amongst other things, the growing number of NSA and as to whether they are now more important? Are economies more globally interdependent and as such in reference to this method of questioning does this make the state any the less important. Since the end of World War II, realism, also known as the power politics school of thought has dominated the field of international relations. Although it faces a sustained challenge, realism continues to provide for a large number of scholars and foreign policy makers the basic assumptions for the analysis of world politics.

    • Word count: 2243
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Explain the economic and political deficiencies of the C A P

    3 star(s)

    In addition to this increased productivity, and thus output, results in falling food prices raising living standards and thus profitability of non-agricultural sectors. The reallocation of resources through greater productivity is achieved by earnings in the agricultural sector declining in relation to other sectors. Thus one can say there is a 'natural' tendency for agricultural populations to suffer relative poverty. Low earnings are a result of productivity in agriculture increasing more rapidly than the demand for food. If supply outpaces demand, prices have to fall to restore the balance.

    • Word count: 2079
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Outline the principle ideological factors of Thatcherism

    3 star(s)

    `Stuart Hall and Andrew Gamble are among the foremost contributors to the study of Thatcherism. Their definition therefore is a useful reference point when identifying and discussing Thatcherite ideology. This is not to say that their view is unanimously accepted by other political commentators - of all the recognized components of Thatcherism, the two cited by Hall and Gamble as being central to it, are the two aspects most open to debate. `In order to understand the nature of Thatcherism, I feel that it is necessary to examine the relationship between Thatcherism and (previous)

    • Word count: 1592
  8. Marked by a teacher

    'Critically discuss whether Britainhas been an 'awkward partner' (George) in relation to themovement towards European unity'.

    This seems to be the beginning of this idea about Britain being 'difficult'. So why did we reject the French Alliance, and try to distance our self from Europe? I believe we rejected the alliance and distanced ourselves due to the fact that being an island we felt that we could avoid the war due to being so isolated, and that it wasn't the fact that we were being awkward but more so the fact that Britain likes to look out for herself- and always considers her best interests.

    • Word count: 1962
  9. Lobbying in the European Union

    They have to make sure that the law in every European country is properly applied. 4. Representing the EU on the international stage. It makes sure that the member states can speak with one voice (Europa.eu, 2009). Explain why the system of Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) in the Council of Ministers has become more important in the decision-making process Assuming a measure is opposed by Britain, Italy and Ireland, which together wield 23 votes, these have more power than smaller countries. Since a blocking majority consists of 26 votes, the power of Denmark or Finland (each with three votes)

    • Word count: 1499
  10. Is free trade beneficial or detrimental for developing states?

    Developing states generally have lower labour costs and cheaper raw materials than more developed economies, meaning that they can operate at a lower average cost and thus undercut the prices set by foreign firms in developed states, enabling their businesses to maintain a high level of demand from the global market. However, it is inevitable that some businesses will be worse off when operating with no trade barriers than they would under a protectionist policy. For example, if a firm in Indonesia was trying to grow bananas it would be unable to compete with firms in Jamaica, where the climate

    • Word count: 2455
  11. Have government interventions in the economies of independent Southeast Asian countries been a force for stability or instability?

    This proliferation of cronyism also developed a constructive social structure, in which the mutual reliance of the patron-client relationships led to satisfaction in the part of both the government and the involved companies, thus resulting in social stability. Hence, cronyism could conceivably be regarded as the price that had to be paid for stability. Another case in point would be Malaysia, where political and economical favours were reciprocated by financial and electoral support for government officials. Government leaders exploited the New Economic Policy (NEP)

    • Word count: 1917
  12. What is the relationship between terrorism and globalization? Does trans-national terrorism reflect the deviant/dark side of globalization?

    It has some internal and external reasons. But generally, the relationship between terrorism and globalization is seen as a proportional relationship. That means, the more the world is globalized, the more terrorism cases will happen. Although we cannot really simplify it by saying terrorism cases are fully influenced by globalization, the act of terrorism is however identified through the causes of globalization. Globalization did help the world in the sense for communication. People are closer to each other because of globalization. Moreover, there are a lot of things that are influenced by globalization too.

    • Word count: 1634
  13. Does globalisation undermine the nation-state and national identities?

    An examination into how the nature of the nation-state has changed as a result of globalisation demonstrates that it has been undermined in a number of regards. Globalisation has advanced in almost every respect - economically, technologically, culturally, even linguistically - yet this has not proved to be the case politically and militarily to the extent that 'territorial states remain the only effective authorities'3. Nonetheless, the suggestion that the central dynamics of economic life now transcend national borders and so have become uncontrollable for national governments4 somewhat overstates the lack of economic power which remains with nation-states.

    • Word count: 2556
  14. What caused the Financial Crisis: An in-depth study of Neoliberalism and the Lehman Brothers

    The neoliberalist argument effectively states that the government was at fault for the financial crisis. They believe for two reasons, which are firstly that the government regulated the banks in an irresponsible fashion (Beenstock 2009 p64), in that they passed legislation, such as the CRA, to force banks to do something out of character with a neoliberal capitalist system. Secondly, by giving too much power to 'independent' institutions, such as the Federal Housing Association (FHA) (Butler 2009 p54) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

    • Word count: 3852
  15. To what extent do organizations like the IMF, WTO, and World Bank challenge the nation states ability to shape domestic economic and social policy?

    With the collapse of the Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate system in the early 1970s, this role changed. The IMF dealt less with the developed countries and more with the developing ones. It provided long and short term loans at below market interest rates for countries in all sorts of economic difficulty, making it less distinct from the World Bank. Promoting economic growth as well as resolving specific crises became its mission, which meant that ever more countries became involved in these socalled structural adjustment programs.

    • Word count: 1972
  16. Alabama Immigration Law. HB 56 or the Alabama Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act has positive and negative outcomes.

    government and are direct forms of government intrusion into personal privacy and the police state ideology that accompanies it should be avoided at all costs. Possibly the only beneficial quality of HB 56 is the fact that it brings up the question of free education for illegal immigrants and their children. The current policy is that education is a right under the 14th Amendment which includes the "Equal Protection Clause", "nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws" (The Constitution of the United States: Amendments 11-27)

    • Word count: 1884
  17. Barack Obama is against Samuel Huntingtons theory. The current president disagrees with the Huntingtons Theory of Hispanization which basically states that immigration from Mexico and Latin America is potentially destructive of original Am

    Immigration policy must be handled according to the economic interests of the United States and American workers. President Obama also states that an orderly and controlled border situation and an immigration system designed to meet the economic needs of the country are important pillars for a strong economy (Obama, 2006).

    • Word count: 514
  18. An account of the institutions and organisations that are responsible for safeguarding human rights in Europe and the Americas

    The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is selected by the UN General Assembly and reports directly to it. The UNHRC was formed in 2005 to investigate issues of human rights violations and took the place of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights which had suffered after many years of criticism (Ahrens, 2010). The UNHRC is based in Geneva and will generally meet three times per year although extra meetings occur to respond to critical or urgent circumstances. Whilst the UNHRC cannot authorise the use of force (this can only be done by the Security Council)

    • Word count: 2012
  19. How has the success of the Extreme Right in France come about and what impact has it had on National and European politics? A detailed examination of the Extreme Right in France and its National and European success

    Introduction This Dissertation will focus on the electoral success of the FN in European, national, and legislative elections from 1995 to 2007. The primary aim of this thesis is to critically examine the policy areas that the FN have advocated in order to further its electoral gains in all elections in the time period under study. The first Chapter will form the theoretical framework of the Dissertation by conducting an analysis of a set of criteria laid out by academics, such as Mudde and Ignazi, in order to define what policy areas an extreme right party adheres to.

    • Word count: 11330
  20. In what ways and by what means has terrorism become a global phenomenon?

    9/11, as the most ominous example, seems to be representative for the undergone changes over the former decades. The attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon on September 11 confirmed, that terrorism not simply have altered, but it had acquired a 'new face' (Roberts, 2002), drawing advantage from the opportunities offered by today's restlessly globalizing world. Despite this newly occurring 'face', terrorism is, beyond all doubt, not new, as several of its most significant features have already appeared in the past. "However much we may wish it were not so, terrorism has been common throughout history" (Davis, Paul K., 2002).

    • Word count: 1427
  21. Examine International Intervention in the Case of the Sierra Leonean Civil War

    Coercive intervention is intervention without the consent of both sides of a conflict and is typically against the ruling party. Co-operative intervention tends to follow a peace accord, and can involve humanitarian assistance, mediation or peacekeeping. From an academic point of view, then, Sierra Leone is a wonderful case study for analysing the justification, and effectiveness, of different means of intervention. This essay shall chronologically examine the various attempts at intervention in the Sierra Leonean conflict, and to what extent they were effective.

    • Word count: 3014
  22. The Winners and Losers of Globalization

    This saves production costs and raises profits when distributing the goods to sell on a global scale. Nike, the sportswear equipment supplier, which employs 75000 workers in Asia, is only one example.1 Some advertising firms, for instance, have several hundred offices in over 70 countries of our world. Their growth in the last decades has been quite considerable: Yearly sales of business partners of transborder firms increased from nearly 2.7$ trillion in the early eighties to more than $17.6 trillion in 2003, which is equivalent to almost half of world GDP.2 There are, of course, critics who play the role of global players down.

    • Word count: 1728
  23. Britain's Nuclear Deterrent. The government argues that the conditions required for complete nuclear disarmament do not yet exist. This paper will argue that these conditions already exist for the UK and will examine the threat, costs, the environmental

    government policy that if our forces or if our people were threatened by weapons of mass destruction we would reserve the right to use appropriate proportionate responses which might, might, in extreme circumstances include the use of nuclear weapons' (Hoon, 2002b). Whereas prior to this statement most people believed that the UK's nuclear weapons capability would only be deployed in response to a nuclear attack from a third party it was now evident that it could be used as a response to a chemical or biological attack or even the 'threat' of such an attack.

    • Word count: 3349
  24. Power Rests in the Hands of the Consumers Under Globalisation. Discuss. (65/100)

    By this definition consumers hold total power but in its applicability to the question it fails on two counts. First it is unrepresentative of modern global commerce and secondly it is nescient of the more subversive means by which power can be acquired in such a situation. The former of these failings can be resolved by replacing the producer (those vying for the consumers investment) with a capitalist who as Marxists believe owns the producers "means of production" (on a global scale this will be elaborated upon later). The latter is improved by Bachrach and Baratz (Lukes, 2005: 20)

    • Word count: 2149
  25. Patriot Act vs. E-mail Privacy. The USA Patriot Act allowed for all of these things but was it legal? The government would never pass a law that clearly violated the U.S. Constitution, right? Wrong. The USA Patriot Act was in clear violation of the docum

    The Patriot Act allowed the FBI to "use national security letters (NSLs) to secretly demand individuals' and companies' information without a search warrant." (8) These NSL's were the way that the FBI could read e-mails and monitor Internet usage. Under Section 216 of the USA Patriot Act, the government can monitor e-mail and Internet usage on any ISP, Internet Service Provider. There is no need for a warrant or probable cause because under the provisions of the Patriot Act, this is legal.

    • Word count: 2121

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the impact that enlargement will have on the size and economy of the European Union. How will regional and economic policies alter to accommodate the accession of new member states?

    "In conclusion, I feel that enlargement, overall, will have a major impact on both the size and economy of the European Union. Although the EU will become a larger trading block, of approximately 500 million people, the relatively underdeveloped nature of the new member states' economies will mean that the impact on trade will be felt in the medium and long term rather than short term. The alteration of both the economic and regional policies in order to accommodate the accession of the new member countries will bring about a sense of cohesion and co - operation into the union as well as a sense of belonging. "Enlargement does not only serve as a momentum for institutional reform, it also provides current member states with the opportunity to re - open existing policy deals and bargain for a more advantageous outcome" (Stennenberg 2001 p 365)"

  • "There was no general drift to war in 1914 rather there was the determination of one power (Germany) to exploit the Balkan crisis to change the international status quo in its favour". Critically evaluate this statement.

    "In my opinion the Balkan crisis was used by Germany as a stepping stone to what we now know as world war one. Germany had always felt left out in colonial expansion. Germany felt that Britain and France were denying them their rightful share of colonial influence. They thought the Balkan crisis was their chance to increase their colonial influence without the help of Britain or France. Therefore Germany exploited the Balkan crisis in an effort to change the international status quo in its favour. Germany totally exploited the Balkan crisis to their advantage. They were determined to change the international status quo in its favour. They knew that by backing Austria during the crisis, they in turn would support Germany should a war start. Germany knew that backing Austria during the crisis would eventually lead to a European conflict and when Austria handed its ultimatum to Serbia, this conflict started. In a way Germany got what it wanted even though they weren't seen as being the ones who started the war. Germany knew that by backing Austria, it would mean that the already fragile lines of communication between Austria and Serbia would be irreconcilably damaged. This ensured that the international status quo was changed in Germanys favour."

  • To what extent do the ideas of the 'Third Way' represent a new form of politics?

    "In conclusion I shall prefer to sit on the fence and watch the Third Way unravel itself. For as I have suggested the Third Way certainly could be interpreted as a unique form of modern politics. However the Third Way will be interpreted differently by each European government. Thus in order for the Third Way to be successful as truly new form of politics that really can transgress the line between left and right it must be introduced with certain structural elements. Firstly there is a need for 'moral principles and priorities'. Secondly there is a need for 'a more detailed, clear ideology that relates more to the real world' and thirdly 'these principles need to be clear, with policies and practices on how to change current policies to Third Way policies'. (David Halpern **) ** _ Unknown Date"

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