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University Degree: International Politics

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 9
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    'All political parties are prey to the iron law of oligarchy.' Discuss

    5 star(s)

    Much of Michels 'iron rule' theory was influenced heavily by Karl Marx' philosophy on class rivalries, believing that in any capitalist society there would always be a ruling class of bureaucrats who controlled the state's resources, as he wrote 'the 'dominant' or 'political' class ..... consists the only factor of sufficiently durable efficacy in the history of human development.' 1 (Michels) This was an accepted fact up to the turn of the twentieth century; when ideals of aristocratic dominance were exchanged for ones of open democracy and the end of political inequalities.

    • Word count: 1936
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Why is the Common Agricultural Policy so difficult to reform?

    4 star(s)

    Despite its obvious decline the farming population in the EU remains significant. In France it is the fourth largest occupational group, and similar patterns are found in Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Italy3. Also taking active farmers, retired farmers, spouses of farmers, voting age children of farmers, and former farmers now in other occupations as constituting the combined agricultural contribution, then farmers as a percentage of the electorate rises to over 17% in France, and approaches that level in other EU states with large agricultural sectors4.

    • Word count: 1898
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Why is the single currency so important? Discuss with relation to issues of economic and political union.

    4 star(s)

    Many economists use the term 'eurosclerosis' to describe this slump in economic growth during the last twenty years. As a result of this, the importance of stability lies within its ability to drag the diverse currency base of Europe towards greater economic prosperity and to prevent a reoccurrence of eurosclerosis. Eichengreen and Wyplosz3 describe how the economic principal of creating stability and, as a result instilling confidence into businesses across Europe can provide the strong financial outlook the EU needs for long term growth.

    • Word count: 1872
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Outline the principle ideological factors of Thatcherism

    3 star(s)

    `Stuart Hall and Andrew Gamble are among the foremost contributors to the study of Thatcherism. Their definition therefore is a useful reference point when identifying and discussing Thatcherite ideology. This is not to say that their view is unanimously accepted by other political commentators - of all the recognized components of Thatcherism, the two cited by Hall and Gamble as being central to it, are the two aspects most open to debate. `In order to understand the nature of Thatcherism, I feel that it is necessary to examine the relationship between Thatcherism and (previous)

    • Word count: 1592
  5. Marked by a teacher

    'Critically discuss whether Britainhas been an 'awkward partner' (George) in relation to themovement towards European unity'.

    This seems to be the beginning of this idea about Britain being 'difficult'. So why did we reject the French Alliance, and try to distance our self from Europe? I believe we rejected the alliance and distanced ourselves due to the fact that being an island we felt that we could avoid the war due to being so isolated, and that it wasn't the fact that we were being awkward but more so the fact that Britain likes to look out for herself- and always considers her best interests.

    • Word count: 1962
  6. The Winners and Losers of Globalization

    This saves production costs and raises profits when distributing the goods to sell on a global scale. Nike, the sportswear equipment supplier, which employs 75000 workers in Asia, is only one example.1 Some advertising firms, for instance, have several hundred offices in over 70 countries of our world. Their growth in the last decades has been quite considerable: Yearly sales of business partners of transborder firms increased from nearly 2.7$ trillion in the early eighties to more than $17.6 trillion in 2003, which is equivalent to almost half of world GDP.2 There are, of course, critics who play the role of global players down.

    • Word count: 1728
  7. Analysis of the mechanisms used by international economic elites to convince people of the virtues of globalisation

    Robert Guest Economist Magazine January 22nd edition, distinguishes between three type of global leaders. In the case of the financial leaders, they are characterized by their wealth power, and the ability to easily influence large numbers of people. The political leaders are people who generate ideas or popularize the old ones which affect the way the government work and finally the peril of genius who come up with inventions and affect the way the people live. Although the origin of the elitist economic group can be traced to a deep period in history, the most known and discussed origin of

    • Word count: 1881
  8. What were the main forces promoting globalisation in the late 20th century? How different was this from what had happened in the late 19th century?

    The late 19th and early 20th Century was a period where successive governments followed laissez-faire policies, believing in the freedom of transactions from state intervention, including regulation, taxes and tariffs. Although laissez-faire was never absolute in any country, including Britain, there was very little government intervention in comparison to the post-1914 period when protectionism and economic interventionism returned. One notable exception is Germany under Bismarck whose 'iron and rye' tariff in 1879 marked a turning point in nineteenth century European tariff history (Zussman 2008).

    • Word count: 1652
  9. Commentary. The Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation is a speech made by the United States of America President, John F. Kennedy, and live transmitted on October, 22nd 1962.

    Kennedy was able to give public awareness to the events that were likely to unfold. Besides warning Khrushchev the speech also has other targets. The American president warned Dictator Fidel Castro by saying: '. They are puppets ... which has turned Cuba against your friends and neighbors in the Americans, and turned it into the first Latin American country to become a target for nuclear war the first Latin American country to have these weapons on its soil.' (Kennedy, 1962) For a better understanding of the exigency that occurred during that period we must take a look at the events that took place before the crisis itself.

    • Word count: 1103
  10. Human rights and International Law. This work will briefly analyze how questionable human rights records of both Brazil and North Korea have recently impacted their relations with other sovereign countries.

    The verdict gave Goldman the momentum he desperately needed until now, this had primarily been a private issue between Goldman and Joao Paulo Lins e Silva; the newly widowed husband of Bianchi whom had passed away a year earlier while giving birth to his child. However it has now become a high level international conflict involving both congress and The US Secretary of State. American Politicians led by New Jersey Congressman Chris smith, who introduced legislation H.R.2702 (govtrack 2009) which would suspend Brazil's Generalized System of preferences trading benefit.

    • Word count: 1559
  11. Free essay

    Should the court challenges program be re-instated

    Pierre Trudeau decided to enforce the Courts Challenges Program instead of testing the bill directly. The main goal of this program was to help minority groups challenge those laws that infringed on their rights towards their minority languages under the Constitution act. In the year of 1982 when the Charter of Rights and Freedoms was introduced the Courts Challenges Program was expanded. Throughout the years this program has faced many threats that aimed to eliminate it. On 2006 of September, Stephen Harper of the Conservative minority government came into power and decided to take out this program in its first government budget.

    • Word count: 1769
  12. Security Dilemma & Cooperation

    Similarly Noe-liberals focus more on political economy and others issues such as human right and the environment, still the security of a nation is taken in consideration as well. Because the security of a nation is so important, some theories such as Neorealism place security above international cooperation, however other theories including Neoliberalism and Constructionism know place the importance of international cooperation above security. The level of analysis a theory is based on provides much information as to whether or not they believe that security hinders cooperation.

    • Word count: 1173
  13. In this essay I plan to analyze the multi dimensional character of power and the many forms it is organized in order to explain the character of world politics and International relations. I will do this with particular reference to sovereignty.

    Influence can be implemented through the threat or use of force, international pressure, diplomacy and economic interaction. If an actor possesses the 'power' to influence then they will be able to set the agenda of contemporary world politics. 1 Another description of power is states achieving military victories or state security within the international system. For example a state that takes part in successful military campaigns and comes out victorious is often describes as powerful. Similarly a state that manages to protect its sovereignty and security from significant challenges may also be seen as a powerful nation.

    • Word count: 1631
  14. Conflicting Agendas and Misinformation

    After the September 11 attacks and subsequent retaliation against the Taliban, the Bush administration's policy focused on safety and protection of U.S. interests in the Middle East. Part of this philosophy was manifested in Bush's famous "Axis of Evil" speech, where he mentioned North Korea, Iran and Iraq as the major threats to the United States in the following years. These countries, he said, were developing weapons of mass destruction, did not share an ideological basis with the United States, and were thus a threat to her future safety.

    • Word count: 1022
  15. Germany and citizenship

    The FRG claimed to have the sole right of representation of the Germans (Alleinvertretungsanspruch) and to be the only true Reich of Germany, completely disclaiming the German Democratic Republic (GDR) any part of it. This separation was the start of the Cold War and as a result of this, the civic-territorial concept of citizenship slowly became more popular in Germany at the expense of the ethno-cultural concept. At the same time other countries in Europe also started to change their ideas around citizenship and nationality and a more 'constitutional' approach based on jus soli became more desirable.

    • Word count: 1561
  16. What difficulties are there in integrating Europe?

    It emphasises things from the aspect of religion by focusing on Christendom, or analyse it from the political point of view for example through liberal democracy. Europe has been associated with a set of ideals that are seen as a positive set of values and also with some negative elements. And then the third usage of the term the idea of a European project that is to create a united, peaceful and successful economic entity of 'Europe' through the idea of the European Union.

    • Word count: 1529
  17. Is Britain more or less Awkward the other Member States

    p.43). One reason for Britain's awkwardness, discussed in academic literature, arises from her commitments to the Commonwealth and US. A Venn diagram can be used to illustrate the complexity of Britain's commitments (Fig.1). Butter trade links with the Commonwealth meant Britain attempted to safeguard New Zealand's trade while conforming to Europe's agricultural policy (Singleton, J. & Robertson, P. 2003). 'An Awkward Partner' thesis solely concerns Britain and therefore this report will need to look elsewhere to answer the question. I consider the thesis more of an anthology of significant examples of Government behaviour used to backup the argument that Britain is awkward. An anthology of examples where British governments have been cooperative or where French, Danish, Spanish governments etc.

    • Word count: 1751
  18. The problem with Globalization is that it weakens the power of the State. Discuss.

    Globalization is an umbrella term for a number of processes, political, cultural as well as economic. Globalization in terms of the expansion of global linkages covers a wide range of areas and for this reason my project will remain focused on the economic side of globalisation and its implications for the power of the state. Economic Globalization is without a doubt the most commented upon, debated, and controversial of topics within the literature on globalization (el-Ojeili et al., 2006:49). Many social scientists contend that the state is experiencing a loss of power and sovereignty in the era of economic globalization.

    • Word count: 1881
  19. Assess the impact of asymmetric information with regard to government performance

    In politics, governments big or small use delegation to increase the range of services that they can provide. For example, governments delegate to defense ministries the task of sustaining national security and to finance ministries the task of controlling the economy. According to Strom (2000:266) the reason we delegate in political matters is because one party (the agent) has certain kinds of information or skills or simply the time that the other party (the principal) lacks. The principal-agent relationship, however, carries some drawbacks. If the agent has interests and incentives that are not perfectly compatible with those of the principal, then delegation may generate agency problems.

    • Word count: 1972
  20. How would you characterise the structure of party system of the French Fifth Republic? What factors have shaped that structure?

    I will also discuss factors which shaped the French Fifth Republic's party system structure. For instance, one must simultaneously consider two important factors which were closely linked: elements of the constitution of 1958 and the later amendments, as well as the important role of Charles de Gaulle. Firstly, at the beginning of the Fifth Republic there existed many different political parties all pertaining to different divisions which existed within French society. De Gaulle believed that these only represented "sectional interests, and...the basic divisions of French society".

    • Word count: 1999
  21. How does neoliberalism legitimize globalism

    Neoliberalism dictates the policies of governments, and shapes the actions of key institutions such as the World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, World Bank and the European Central Bank. Globalism can be defined as a 'political ideology that endows the concept of globalization with market-orientated norms, values, and meanings (Steger, 2004:ix). Globalism encompasses four main areas including economic, military, environmental and social globalism. Globalisation can be understood as the worldwide phenomenon of economic and political convergence around neoliberal principles and the technological shrinking of the globe (Charbonneau, 2008:84).

    • Word count: 1189
  22. Interest groups enhance the quality of American democracy. To what extent do you agree with this claim?

    Thus interest groups act as intermediaries between the government and the public in an attempt to ensure a more active role of the people in their own government. One of the purposes of this paper will be to present a comprehensive definition of interest groups. Only when clear delineations of the concept of interest groups are considered, can the influence of pressure groups be looked at. A discussion will then follow focused on the contrast between the positive effects interest groups have on American democracy and the concerns about their intervention with the government's effectiveness.

    • Word count: 1842
  23. Main factors that led to the ECC

    Western Europe and the US is democracy, with Eastern Europe and the USSR being communism. An example for this is the Greek Civil War, in which the democratic government put down the communist uprising showing that the communists are on the doorsteps of Western Europe and that they are a very real threat. In the first civil war in 1944, the defence of Greece was mainly the responsibility of traditionally isolationist Great Britain, which shows that other countries in Europe are willing to protect, not themselves, but their continent from communism. Thus we can establish from the fact that one of the most isolationist countries in Europe was going out of its way (after a bitter war depleted its armies and economy)

    • Word count: 1614
  24. Explain the efforts to promote nuclear arms control

    The question that arises from this is what impact will countries who are acquiring nuclear capabilities have on regions moving towards denuclearisation. In this essay I am going to be writing about the limited success of efforts to promote nuclear arms control, I will be explaining what efforts have been put in place and why the efforts have been only a limited success. Concern about the spread of nuclear weapons has undoubtedly increased in significance on the international agenda since the end of the east west cold war, yet many of the factors that have made it such an important factor have been underway for several decades.

    • Word count: 1888

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the impact that enlargement will have on the size and economy of the European Union. How will regional and economic policies alter to accommodate the accession of new member states?

    "In conclusion, I feel that enlargement, overall, will have a major impact on both the size and economy of the European Union. Although the EU will become a larger trading block, of approximately 500 million people, the relatively underdeveloped nature of the new member states' economies will mean that the impact on trade will be felt in the medium and long term rather than short term. The alteration of both the economic and regional policies in order to accommodate the accession of the new member countries will bring about a sense of cohesion and co - operation into the union as well as a sense of belonging. "Enlargement does not only serve as a momentum for institutional reform, it also provides current member states with the opportunity to re - open existing policy deals and bargain for a more advantageous outcome" (Stennenberg 2001 p 365)"

  • "There was no general drift to war in 1914 rather there was the determination of one power (Germany) to exploit the Balkan crisis to change the international status quo in its favour". Critically evaluate this statement.

    "In my opinion the Balkan crisis was used by Germany as a stepping stone to what we now know as world war one. Germany had always felt left out in colonial expansion. Germany felt that Britain and France were denying them their rightful share of colonial influence. They thought the Balkan crisis was their chance to increase their colonial influence without the help of Britain or France. Therefore Germany exploited the Balkan crisis in an effort to change the international status quo in its favour. Germany totally exploited the Balkan crisis to their advantage. They were determined to change the international status quo in its favour. They knew that by backing Austria during the crisis, they in turn would support Germany should a war start. Germany knew that backing Austria during the crisis would eventually lead to a European conflict and when Austria handed its ultimatum to Serbia, this conflict started. In a way Germany got what it wanted even though they weren't seen as being the ones who started the war. Germany knew that by backing Austria, it would mean that the already fragile lines of communication between Austria and Serbia would be irreconcilably damaged. This ensured that the international status quo was changed in Germanys favour."

  • To what extent do the ideas of the 'Third Way' represent a new form of politics?

    "In conclusion I shall prefer to sit on the fence and watch the Third Way unravel itself. For as I have suggested the Third Way certainly could be interpreted as a unique form of modern politics. However the Third Way will be interpreted differently by each European government. Thus in order for the Third Way to be successful as truly new form of politics that really can transgress the line between left and right it must be introduced with certain structural elements. Firstly there is a need for 'moral principles and priorities'. Secondly there is a need for 'a more detailed, clear ideology that relates more to the real world' and thirdly 'these principles need to be clear, with policies and practices on how to change current policies to Third Way policies'. (David Halpern **) ** _ Unknown Date"

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