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University Degree: Political Systems

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  1. Research Project - Efficiency of the parliament as a legislative branch in Russia.

    Citizens rule the country through Parliament; this is compulsory principle of democracy. But I cannot say that now in Russia this principle works in full strength, of course political parties represent people, they have their programs and their own bills, and parliament is changing in better way all the time, step by step. But still there are some issues that reduce efficiency of work of Parliament that I want to discuss. In my point of view, personnel (staff) issues are really important and their solvation is obligatory, because if deputies will work for their own benefits or will not work at all, than parliament will not be democratic.

    • Word count: 2100
  2. The significance of minor parties in Australian Politics.

    Sartori's Rules Giovanni Sartori presented a relatively diverse framework from which the relevancy of minor parties could be established. This included the creation of two broad ranging rules or criteria. Firstly, Sartori states that minor parties can be considered irrelevant when it remains during a period where it is essentially not needed or put to any legitimate reason. Conversely, a minor party must be counted if it is in a position to dictate the formation of government (Sartori 1976). The Australian National Party (ANP) are a prime example of this. The coalition established between the Liberal Party of Australia (LPA)

    • Word count: 2564
  3. Does the focus upon Biblical thought, Republicanism, and Liberalism present a convincing case for the concept of American Exceptionalism?

    however, there are also key contradictions within them that weaken and discourage the idea, as well as the argument that Exceptionalism itself is a dying concept in a modern world. American Biblical thought can be interpreted in many different ways. Stemming from the initial steps of the first settlers, the puritan movement that occupied the new territory can be seen as being intrinsically linked to many elements of Biblical thought in the modern day nation, as Tocqueville said: "I think I can see the whole destiny of America contained in the first Puritan who landed on those shores" (Gandziarowski, 2005: 3).

    • Word count: 2574
  4. Homestyles and Congressional-Constituency relations

    Barbara Mikulski began her Congressional career in 1977, replacing incumbent Paul Sarbanes' seat in the House of Representatives for Maryland's 3rd district.1 Before going into politics, Senator Mikulski devoted much of her time and energy towards helping others. She earned her masters degree in social work from the University of Maryland in 1965.2 Her passion for serving the community grew into a career after she took a position as a social worker with Baltimore's Department of Social Services. For over ten years, Mikulski worked on programs that focused on protecting at-risk youth living in East Baltimore neighborhoods, as well as educating elderly residents about the benefits of the Medicare program3.

    • Word count: 2298
  5. To what extent can it be argued that the local government system in Britain prior to 2000 was an accretion of significant changes rather than a planned cohesive and fit-for-purpose system.

    The most significant modifications to local government took place during the Industrial Revolution when it became necessary to change due to the expansion of urbanisation at this time. This move from rural to urban areas brought with it a complicated pattern of both social and economic problems. Provisions had to be made in education, housing, health and sanitation to cope with the sudden influx of industrial workers and their families and this required some involvement from the state. 'The situation required a more interventionalist stand by the government than had hitherto been the case.' (2000) Atkinson H. & Wilks-Heeg S.

    • Word count: 2974
  6. The American polity became a democracy more in spite of than because of the Constitution. Discuss

    However, for a society to be considered democratic, there are many other factors that must be taken into account. The Economist's 'Democracy Index' assesses the performance of various democratic nations in five different categories; electoral process and pluralism, functioning of government, political participation, political culture and civil liberties; in its assessment of the strongest and most flawed regimes internationally.2 Wilson Carey McWilliams, in his article "Democracy and the Citizen", maintains that "democracy presumes some restraint on the extremes of wealth and poverty.

    • Word count: 2855
  7. Free essay

    How has political campaigning evolved through history

    It is very easy to say that during this time due to the larger monetary funds of the Conservative Party, they had an advantage. However, due to the lack of funds the Labour Party often came up with more innovative and appealing ideas. "Campaigning has always had a marketing character. The new 'methodology' is not the introduction of marketing methods into politics, but an increased sophistication and acceleration in their use". (Kotler, P. 1982) Political parties still had to market themselves but it tended to be to a much smaller audiences on a large scale.

    • Word count: 2000
  8. Analyse the obstacles to the consolidation of democracy in Colombia.

    These two can be traced to the time it got its independence in 1810. "Between 1810 and 1861 the independence struggle was marked by fierce quarrels among the Creole elite, some wanting a unitary regime and other a federal alliance. This debate, fuelled by the deep regionalism and competing interests of the elite was to continue into independence"( Pearce 1990: pg 15). These parties established themselves remarkably through its independence as an institutional vehicle for it local and class rivalry which became an active means of participation in politics that occasionally resulted to armed conflict.

    • Word count: 2606
  9. Is Democratization Making International Relations More Peaceful?

    Huntington, democracies constitute for the majority of states in the international system. This means that norms governing their relations have a better chance than ever to become the dominant mode of interaction in world politics. Will world politics and international relations thus be more peaceful in future? Is the Democratic Peace Proposition really an accurate account of relations among democratic states and are its predictions for the future of international relations justified? The debate of the Democratic Peace Proposition revolves around three competing interpretations: 1.

    • Word count: 2435
  10. Discuss the idea of democracy as expressed in both form and content with reference to at least one text studied on the course.

    Whitman was seriously devoted to the democratic ideas of freedom, equality and human brotherhood; he was also proud of being a man of the people and assumed the idea that whenever he talked about himself, his experiences and aspirations, he was also speaking for every man. Leaves of Grass shows this is lines like: "Just as you feel when you look on the river and the sky, so I felt, Just as any of you is one of a living crowd, I was one of a Crowd," Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass.

    • Word count: 2072
  11. Is it rational to vote? If it is, why do some people not vote? If it is not, why do some people vote?

    He suggested that people might not vote because the cost of voting outweighs the benefits involved. By cost Downs was referring to the following, where the individual has to go somewhere and register, one has to spend time learning about the proposed policies of the candidates on the ballot. But more generally one has to schedule their day around the election. From a rationalist point of view, for every hour that you are doing this, you could have been doing something more fun, which would benefit the individual. The costs of becoming informed are the most significant because candidates are often elusive and issues can be highly complex.

    • Word count: 2219
  12. Write an essay that explores what it is that is distinctively 'modern' about John Stuart Mills, 'On Liberty.'

    In exploring the concepts that are distinctively modern I will look at the ideas, in Mill, that stand out and are unique to his liberal approach such as his emphasis on individual freedom and liberty. The concept of modernity also has to be clearly classified, with boundaries set in place within which the discussion can operate. I will tackle the question by addressing the concept of modernity and what is meant by it. I will then progress onto what is distinctively modern in Mill and the problems that arise as a result of these arguments.

    • Word count: 2302
  13. Why have elitists, rational choice theorists and Marxists been so sceptical about the prospects for democracy?

    Why have elitists, rational choice theorists and Marxists been so sceptical about the prospects for democracy? ILLUSTRATE YOUR ANSWER WITH EXAMPLES. Generally speaking, democracy was born of ancient Athens, but since then has evolved and changed to form many different ideas about what democracy should be. Because of this, it is difficult to a give a brief definition of democracy, however, it is possible to loosely split democracy into two factions, direct democracy and representative democracy. Direct democracy is concerned with the participation of all citizens in the making of decisions and passing of laws (Robertson, 1993), whereas representative democracy is indirect rule by the majority of the electorate, whereby a small number of representatives are elected to promote the interests of their constituents (Robertson, 1993).

    • Word count: 2213
  14. Why did Pakistan fail to achieve a stable democracy between 1947 and 1971?

    In negiotiations they were outmanoeuvred and ended up with a raw deal getting several bits of land that India simply didn't want, commonly known as "a meagre share of the spoils"2. This was shown in the geographical separation of East and West pakistan by over 1,000 miles. In addition the two areas were also very different in culture and population, thereby creating "polarised"3 states, and a breeding ground for conflict. The main province in West Pakistan was Punjab, where the population consisted of a wealthy landlord class, an elitist group with strong links to the army.

    • Word count: 2458
  15. To what extent does the collapse of authoritarianism in Spain, Poland and South Africa reflect 'the power of the liberal idea' popularised in Francis Fukuyama's notion of 'the end of history'?

    capitalism and democracy as the winner.3 Fukuyama claims that while other forms of rule have failed due to severe deficiency and irrationalities, liberal democracy was free of all such defects and fundamental contradictions. Although he concedes that the majority of stable modern day democracies are not without there faults and injustices, the ideal of liberal democracy represents the end of history because it could not be improved on. Fukuyama uses the 'power of the liberal idea' to represent the reason for the universal transition of all political systems across the world to that of the Western liberal idea of democracy.

    • Word count: 2552
  16. "There is no place in the Contemporary Middle Eastfor Western style democracy".

    If we have outlined the Middle East it is necessary to do the same with Western Style democracy. The leading western democracies are all liberal democracies which can be defined by " Constitutional government, a system of checks and balances among major institutions, fair and regular elections, a democratic franchise, a competitive party system, the protection of individual rights and civil liberties and so forth"i It is fair to say the western style democracy does constitute liberal democracy. The latest US president to intervene in the Middle East, George W Bush has championed the cause of liberal democracy.

    • Word count: 2699
  17. What is Democracy? In what ways has the concept been controversial in the study of politics?"The notions

    An individual or group of individuals may take and maintain power by the use of coercive force. From history we can see that this is the usual way by which power is gained, and maintained. However, it has long been understood that people might come together and explicitly agree to put someone in power. The best of the thinkers saw a process; -- call it democracy -- by which groups might bloodlessly choose a leader. That each of the governed should have a say, or at least an opportunity to have a say, is a high flying ideal; but any system by which the peace is kept is an admirable system and democracy, such as it has evolved, has proven, in many cases, to be just such a system.

    • Word count: 2319
  18. Why did Constant think that ancient democracy was dangerously impractical in the modern world?

    Constant saw ancient democracy in the Athenian conception. "This republic was the most famous of all: you will guess that I am speaking of Athens" This conception meant a system of citizen-rule or self-rule that entailed direct and participatory democracy. Furthermore, he saw ancient liberty as a form of exercising collective and direct participation on aspects of sovereign power. "deliberating in the public assembly on issues of war and peace, making treaties of alliance with foreign states, voting on laws, pronouncing legal verdicts, inspecting the accounts, actions and administration of magistrates and calling upon them to explain their stewardship before

    • Word count: 2019
  19. A Report on Liberal Democratic Government.

    Slowly countries began to implement these ideas, though few would be as radical to apply all the measures of the liberal thinkers, parliaments were set up and the majority of the people were able to vote in a secret ballot. (Though this did not include women in many countries until the 20th century) As I have mentioned one of the most central issues arising from democracy is that of government by the people. Every member of the general public (bar criminals and the certifiably insane - who are regarded as beyond 'universal suffrage')

    • Word count: 2075
  20. Can Islamic societies be democratic? What prevents Islamic societies from being democratic?

    It is understood that democracy requires openness, competition, and tolerance of diversity. These scholars claimed that Islam encourages intellectual conformity and an uncritical acceptance of established authority. They argued that some societies will never achieve democracy comparable to the West since their religion is simply incompatible with the Western ideas of a democratic society. (1991) However, many had also indicated that Islam is a religion that is open to a wide array of interpretations. The meaning of the religious doctrine varies depending on how Muslim communities and their leaders judge and interpret it.

    • Word count: 2795
  21. Is Jordan a Modern Democratic Constitutional Monarchy?

    In the Evaluation of Sources two of the sources; The myth of Jordanian "democracy" and the case of Rami Khouri and the chapter Jordan in the Encyclopedia Britannica are evaluated and assessed for their background, intention and objectivity. The collected information is then analyzed and conclusions are drawn regarding the question of this investigation. Summary of evidence In 1921, after the British had conquered the land east and west of the Jordan river, Britain's Palestine Mandate installed Prince Abdullah as ruler of the land eastern to the Jordan river (Transjordan).

    • Word count: 2216
  22. ‘We have not got democratic government today. I venture to suggest… that we shall never have it. What we have done in all the progress of reform and evolution is to broaden the basis of oligarchy’ (Anthony Eden, 1928). Explain and discuss t

    It should ideally include 'direct popular participation in government' and work via some kind of 'representative mechanism. It is this kind of democracy that we recognise in many Western democratic governments. The most frequent form of participation is by voting in elections. It is through this system that citizens over the age of 18 have a say about who should represent them in Parliament. The concept of pluralism is relevant to democracy as it also places a great deal of emphasis on the sharing of political power. It is a political philosophy that embraces difference. An important component of pluralism is that of compromise.

    • Word count: 2058
  23. Has the effort of the Chinese central party-state to reassert control over thought work and to build a socialist spiritual civilization failed?

    First of all, the term "thought work" originally denoted the exertion of influence in small study groups, but is now used in China to refer to propaganda and persuasion in general. The aim is to sway the public and international opinion in favor of its policies. During the Mao-era, there was no question of other groups challenging the government for control over thought work under Mao?s leadership. Certainly Mao had his opponents but they were not opponents of the Party.

    • Word count: 2421
  24. Is there Democracy in Pakistan?

    Before going into the issue of existence of democracy in Pakistan we must see the basic and precise definition of ?Democracy?. According to the Abraham Lincoln (16th President of USA), ?Democracy is the government of the people, by the people, for the people?. So, a system in which people elect their representatives and then these elected members make rules and regulations that ensure justice and respect of rights of individuals is called Democracy. In Pakistan, many people believe that democracy is there in Pakistan.

    • Word count: 2154

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Evaluate the reasons for and against the use of primary elections in the selection of presidential candidates

    "Primary Elections are caused by the public need for the devolution of political participation, which is more so prominent in America, a country proud of its constitutional requirement for the decentralization and separation of power. Whether Primaries fulfil this aim is debatable. If the argument for primaries says that they are a demonstration of democracy we must also recognise that they are restrictive in both open and closed form. Only blanket primaries offer choice to all citizens. So if the argument for primaries is that they give choice to more people then only blanket primaries can accomplish this principle. The consequences of Primary elections vary. In some states such as Michigan election results saw a rise in turnout from 1996 to 2000 due to the use of primaries. It would appear that this is a positive consequence. However, the basic principle behind the 'American Dream' is that anyone can make a success of himself or herself if they are willing to strive for their goal, and the consequences of primary elections do support the implications that undermine that constitutional liberty. Victoria Neale 08/03/03"

  • To what extent is liberalism compatible with democracy?

    "In conclusion liberalism is not entirely compatible with democracy - some important liberal ideas, in particular the principle that every individual opinion should be taken into account, directly conflict with the system of democracy. However, in many other ways democracy does correspond with liberal values - it provides political equality for example, and protects the rights of the people against overly strong governments. In general, I feel that liberalism has been able to adapt and fit in with democracy, despite the problem of trying to balance popular participation against the protection of individual rights. Meghan Rimmer February 2006 1 Politics - Liberalism"

  • Assess the reasons that lead to the appointment of Hitler as a chancellor in January 1933.

    "In conclusion, it was the vulnerability of Weimar republic which hidden deeply within the democratic system that helped Hitler rises into the power, and eventually conduct to the result of appointment of Hitler as a chancellor. Secondly, the appointment was also largely caused by the conspiracy by conservative rights, which are collaboration between DNVP and Nazis, and personal rivalry between Papen and Schleicher. Meanwhile, the own effort of Nazis itself was also inevitably important to the appointment which made them strong enough to collaborate with DNVP and take the chancellorship."

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