To what extent did the Thatcher years coincide with a sea-change in the values of the British electorate?
To what extent did the Thatcher years coincide with a sea-change in the values of the British electorate? Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister in 1979 and with her brought a new approach to British politics and a break with traditional Conservatism. "By the late 1970s the conventional wisdom was that the February 1974 election had brought to an end a quarter century of stable, balanced two party politics and ushered in a new era of partisan dealignment....Many more voters were up for grabs".1 Thatcher took advantage of the end of consensus politics in a big way, she introduced populist policies to get her into power, such as strong policies on immigration, law and order and foreign policy. An example of this is Thatcher's keenness to start a debate on bringing back the death penalty, "(Thatcher's) preference for the ultimate deterrent of the death penalty is much more in tune with popular, grassroots opinion....Thatcher's populism may not have changed people's attitudes, but it may have changed their votes".2 Thatcher came into power with general attitudes in the electorate moving away from left wing views especially after the Winter of Discontent under Callaghan in the previous Labour government. Thatcher exploited this shift in attitudes with her right wing policies, she was keen on privatisation and free market principles as principles to run the economy and wanted a
"The EP and its role in the EU".
Academic Year 2003-2004 "The EP and its role in the EU" Professor Westlake Assistant: E. Bacconnier Helder Marcio do Couto Pereira "Where is the centre of power in the European Parliament?" "Where is the centre of power in the European Parliament?" Previous to the process of providing a possible answer to the question mentioned previously, it is valid to commence by offering an overview of the manner by which one has decided to organise this essay, the latter being divided in five main parts. The essay begins by an initial introduction offering an overview of the organisation of this work (part 1), the presentation of the main premises of this work, more precisely "centre" and "power" and posterior to that the provision of possible definitions of both, these serving as premises for the argumentation presented hereafter (part 2). Part 3 of this work analysis the veracity of the question itself, more precisely whether the European Parliament (EP) may be considered to be an institution holding power and whether or not previous considerations of the EP as the EU's "talking shop" may be still considered to be valid. Part 4 of this work attempts to draw a possible response to the question presented, presenting possible centres of power in the European Parliament. The final part of the essay (Part 5) presents the main conclusions arrived to. As mentioned the question
What accounts for the weakness of the UK Parliament?
Week 2: The Legislature What accounts for the weakness of the UK Parliament? Before performing the explicit task detailed in the question there must be an analysis of the implicit premise/s underpinning the question. This question has already accepted two premises, which are; . The UK parliament is weak 2. That weakness is an effect which has cause/s Conclusion: There are factors that account for the weakness in the UK parliament. The relationship between the conclusion and premises is one bi-conditional implication, in that the premises entail the conclusion and vice-versa. Identifying these premises will be useful in the context of the question because finding evidence that supports them will legitimise the question and uncover evidence that supports the conclusion whilst concurrently answering the question. The argument also helps us to identify the evidence that will negate the premises and therefore the conclusion. Examples of this type of evidence are episodes and actions that indicate large strength in the UK Parliament. If substantial evidence of this type is discovered then the answer to the question will consist of explanations of Parliament's strength and a refutation of the implicit premise 'the UK Parliament is weak. Analysis of the structure of the question must now proceed to content in order to define a domain of study. The UK Parliament in question
"To what extent can public debt be regarded as private wealth? Discuss in relation to Ricardian equivalence."
Macroeconomics Essay: "To what extent can public debt be regarded as private wealth? Discuss in relation to Ricardian equivalence." Introduction In the 19th Century, the brilliant British economist David Ricardo (1772 - 1823) introduced one of the most important theories, which is the "Ricardian Equivalence". The idea suggested by David Ricardo is that the private sector internalizes the public sector budget constraint. Public debt is not considered as private wealth, and the time profile of taxes does not affect the private sector budget constraint. It assumes that the private sector can freely borrow at the same rate as the government. Public dissaving is matched one for one by private saving; the private sector pierces the veil of the government budget and national saving does not change. The Ricardian Equivalence assumes that consumers base their decision on the estimation of their lifetime budget constraint known as the permanent income hypothesis. Consumers behave as if they are immortal and they do not have any borrowing constraint. Government cannot claim default and cannot finance spending by printing money. This result follow that total government spending must equal to Government's total revenue. Thus, holding a government budget plan, a cut in today's taxes must be matched by an increase in tomorrow's taxes. Therefore the substitution of budget deficit
Does local Government in Britain paly its' proper democratic role?
Does local Government in Britain paly its' proper democratic role? Local governments' proper democratic role is an ambiguous term. There is no abstract scale with which local government can be measured against. It depends on who is defining what the proper role is, for example an MP for the removal of local powers would argue that democracy is fulfilled or even enhanced; a councillor may argue that local government cannot fulfil its role if it is made weaker. In this essay I will briefly show some of the changes which have happened to local government since the 1970s. I will then show some of the differing perspectives on local government democracy and discuss which one has the most relevance. Local government expenditure accounts for about one quarter of all state expenditure. The events surrounding the Community Charge (poll tax) is linked by some commentators as a direct cause for the fall of Mrs Thatcher. It can therefore be seen that local government is an important issue in British politics. There is no one system of local government in Great Britain, furthermore, it is also very dynamic, it changes according to the needs of the community and the size of the population. The biggest change in recent years has been the central governments attempts to alter the status of local government from a provider of services to an overseer or enabling authority. As this essay will
Is terrorism a legitimate political strategy?
Is terrorism a legitimate political strategy? To answer this question we need to examine the definitions of "Terrorism" and "Legitimate." Terrorism is defined in the English dictionary as. "The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons". (www.dictionary.com). Legitimate is defined as "Being in compliance with the law; lawful." (www.dictionary.com). By examining the two definitions it is clear to see that the two words are so different there is no way they could fit together, one being lawful and one being unlawful, however it is not that simple often Terrorism is employed as a strategy by political parties as well as just terrorist organisations to achieve their goals. An example of where political parties have employed terrorism, as a tactic is Sinn Fein in Ireland. Yet these political parties mostly continue to operate unhindered with its key members rarely being imprisoned or bought to trial. So the fact that so many Political Parties around the word employ terrorism as a political strategy must support the notion that terrorism is indeed a legitimate political strategy. What is the purpose of Terrorism? Nearly all acts of terrorism are carried out for political reasons, whether it is
The Welfare State
The great depression of the 1930's coupled with post World War II era resulted in a change for more compassion within all western democracies. There arose the need for government intervention to try and alleviate the disparities brought about by capitalism and the harsh realities of the market cycle. With this newfound compassion several social assistance programs aimed at alleviating poverty were undertaken, most notable of these were Old age Pension, Unemployment Insurance and Welfare. These are the three programs that I will focus upon in my essay and highlight the public sentiments and perceptions, as I try and debunk some of the mysteries. That programs are rights claimed by all citizens of we as a civilised society should not view recipients as burdens on society. With the a new deal at the end of the Second World War the United States and Canada introduced programs to fight the purveyance of poverty amongst their respective citizens. The industrialisation of the economies of these nations produced tremendous new wealth to these countries as was never seen before. The widespread nature of the benefactors of this post-war industrialisation created an abundance of wealth and the sentiments needed to create a just society. The increase in wealth of these nations gave these governments the mandate and flexibility to introduce new programs such as unemployment insurance,
What are the differences between federalism and devolution?
What are the differences between federalism and devolution? Both devolution and federalism describe the distribution of power between a centralised national government and subordinate bodies. Whereas in a federal system, the power is ceded upwards to a national government of limited authority, the power is transferred downwards, in a devolved state, from a central government to subsidiary assemblies. By examining the causes for the adoption of such systems and the long-term implications of them, it can be suggested that whilst federalism is a sustainable state of existence, devolution is merely a disposable expedient in the process of obtaining full independence. The use of the United States and the United Kingdom as primary models for illustration clearly reinforce this assertion. The causes for the implementation of a federal system differ from those that prompt a former centralised government to give up powers and control over institutions. Centrifugal forces within the UK, for example, have created centre-periphery tensions, inducing a growth of local nationalism. This can be attributed, to a certain extent, to the historical development of the state. The formation of the UK from different territories each with their own history and cultural practices and the inconsistent economic distribution has created regional cleavages which need resolution. O'Connor (2001: 4)
Is Representative Democracy An Effective Way to Distribute Political Power?
School of Politics and Sociology COURSEWORK COVER SHEET Student Number: 12510219 Programme of Study: MSC Government Policy and Politics Title of Course Unit: Core ? Option ? Essay 1 ? Essay 2 ? (Please tick as appropriate) Essay Title: Is Representative Democracy an Effective way to Distribute Political Power? Word Count: 3, 032 For official use only Mark: Mark: Tutor signature: Tutor signature: Date: Date: Is Representative Democracy An Effective Way to Distribute Political Power? This essay will be examining the question, is representative democracy an effective way to distribute political power? By using the word democracy and political, this essay will primarily be focusing on the political make up of the United Kingdom and its competence as a legislature. This essay will seek to give examples of both effective and ineffective ways representation has been used in British politics to distribute power amongst Parliament. And whether representative democracy has contributed to a legitimate and equal system of power or if it has made political power unjust and imbalanced. Representative Democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented. It is more properly called a democratic republic. The most common mechanisms involve election of the candidate with a majority or a plurality of the votes 1. Hanna
Discuss whether ministerial accountability is adequately addressed in the UK Constitution.
"The prerogatives have allowed powers to move from Monarch to Ministers without Parliament having a say in how they are exercised. This should no longer be acceptable to Parliament or the people." Discuss whether ministerial accountability is adequately addressed in the UK Constitution. Mustafa Mohamedali L2 688 words As Tom Paine (1971) stated, "A constitution is a thing antecedent to a government and a government is only the creatures of a constitution... A constitution is not the act of a government, but of a people constituting a government and a government without a constitution is power without right". In this sense there is an implication of inherent checks and balances that holds the government and ministers accountable. However since the UK constitution is not entrenched and codified, it is highly pragmatic which means that it can change and evolve over time, thus Paine's perception may no longer be appropriate. The UK constitution is made up of several rules and customs which are not written down as such. One of which are Royal Prerogative powers; these can be defined as are the rights of the Crown to make political and legal decisions. Traditionally these prerogatives are exercised by the Crown i.e. the Monarch but in recent years the domination of the government and clear erosion of monarchic powers has meant these prerogatives are now being exercised by the