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University Degree: Applied Sociology

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  1. The Ethnic Groups of South Africa and their effects on its society.

    Afrikaners are people who are originally from the Netherlands, Germany, France, or Flanders. One notable Afrikaner is F. W. de Klerk, the former State President of South Africa (Johnson, 1995). English South Africans are people who are originally from England, other Western countries, and the Jews. One notable English South African is the lawyer, politician, diplomat and anti-apartheid leader Harry Schwarz (Mitchell, 2002). Some White South Africans have even made big names in Hollywood. One example is that of the Academy Award-winning actress Charlize Theron (Karsten, 2009).

    • Word count: 2532
  2. Gang Leader for a Day: The Ethical Concerns and Questionable Motives Behind a Rogue Sociologist. Sudhir Venkatesh, the rogue sociologist took to the Chicago streets in the most notorious housing projects in search of people to take part in his survey o

    Meanwhile, the gang members he befriended are left with the same poverty and social marginality. Sudhir Venkatesh befriends JT, the leader of the Black Kings gang for purely personal motives. At the end of the study, JT and the members of the Black Kings have not benefitted from the study or gained anything from it. On page 143 of the novel, Venkatesh states, "the next day I'd wake up free of the hundreds of obligations and judgments I'd been witness to.

    • Word count: 2068
  3. Crimes of Obedience: Power of Authority on Ordinary People

    The experiment was presented by him so: "I set up a simple experiment at Yale University to test how much pain an ordinary citizen would inflict on another person simply because he was ordered by an experimenter scientist" (Milgram, p.1) . There were nearly 1000 participants in the Milgram's 20 variations. The experiment was introduced to participants as a study about effects of punishment on learning. The participants are chosen as teacher and learner to make more believable, but actually all of them were teachers.

    • Word count: 2468
  4. Free essay

    It is morally wrong to allow young children to fight in armed conflicts? Discuss

    Cole and Cole psychologists on violence define aggression as 'an act in which someone intentionally hurts another.' (Montgomery, 2009, P.148) Other theorists claim that aggression and violence are learned rather then being part of them already. So where do we draw the line between aggression and just rough and tumble play? Nicholas Blurton Jones carried out a study looking at aggression and rough and tumble play in an attempt to draw a distinction. Based on detailed studies of facial and bodily movements he found that, aggression in children is composed of - Frown, fixate, hit, push, and take-tug-grab.

    • Word count: 2211
  5. What factors have contributed to the prolonging of childhood in Britain?

    Looking back through history, childhood was not always thought of in a positive way. Schooling was for a very brief time, usually until the child/children were old enough to go out to work, or schooling was never even attended. Many families had children so that they could go out to work and help bring in an income to the family unit and it is from here we can obtain evidence about child labour to back this suggestion. Britain was the first country to combat the problem about children working in factories and mines, these prompted long discussions about the type of schooling which should be made available and the amount of education that each child should have.

    • Word count: 2048
  6. Discuss the claim that the best way of life for children today is one that combines school and work. Throughout, reference will be made to the 1999 research of Martin Woodhead, which suggests that a large majority of children envisaged a combination of wo

    Work has been the main focus in children's lives throughout the pre-industrial world. In Europe- in conjunction with introduction of compulsory school, increase of family income and new cultural ideas - its importance declined and a romantic discourse of childhood fuelled outcry against 'child labour'. While until the late 1970s organizations such as the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and UNICEF aimed for complete elimination, worsening global economic conditions and emerging 'rights-based' approaches are forcing a more pragmatic response to the issue of children's work.

    • Word count: 2357
  7. The humanistic approach

    The focus is not on the past, but how the person perceives the world as 'here and now'. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often used to summarize the belief of humanistic psychology. It assumes that we are all born with certain needs that need to be met. Without meeting these needs we are unable to continue with a healthy life and move upwards on the hierarchy. The needs are unconscious rather than known; each level is instigated as people are unsatisfied at each level. Needs at lower levels are fulfilled before later levels. People can be 'fixed' at one level.

    • Word count: 2527
  8. To what extent does the strength of kin relations depend upon proximity? This essay will most importantly focus on kinship relations and how they are maintained across the globe. In addition, this essay will touch upon issues concerning families and the

    Sociologists, for years have attempted in giving a unique explanation for kinship. For some, Kinship is about the ways in which people assemble and categorise themselves as compared with the existent, accurate, natural facts of consanguinity and affinity (Schneider, 2004:258). Kinship ties in Giddens terms are links between individuals, acknowledged during marriage or through the lines of descent that connect blood relations such as mother, father and grandparents (Giddens, 1997:140). For many of us an identification with a kin group is a major aspect of identity from birth, and for many it is also the most enduring and permanent social group.

    • Word count: 2800
  9. Is the notion of underclass merely another name for the most underprivileged people in the working class?

    It is therefore clear that ones definition of the 'underclass' then defines whether socially they are considered a separate class of their own or merely the most underprivileged people in the working class. Although sociologists disagree about the characteristics that define the 'underclass' whether it be through economic distinctions or cultural and behavioural differences from the rest of society, one thing that they do agree on is the conditions that need to me met in order for someone to be part of the 'underclass' .

    • Word count: 2004
  10. This essay will explain what social divisions are and why interrelationships amongst them are significant. Then using chosen article Using Focus Group Research in Exploring the Relationships Between Youth, Risk and Social Position this essay will tr

    (Macionis & Plummer, 2008). Social divisions are socially created rather than 'natural' (i.e. skin colour takes on significance in our society and does impact upon the way those of African origin are treated, but eye colour, hair colour are not important). They are the outcome of previous social interactions, events, decisions, stereotypes and struggles (Moore, 2001). Social divisions have at least two categories, each of which has distinctive material and cultural features, where one category is better positioned than the other and has a better share of resources because it has greater power over the way our society is organised.

    • Word count: 2155
  11. Working Mothers

    This means that while the work load/ demand remained the same they chose to work harder and more efficiently. Not only physically but also mentally, they changed their personal role concepts. Furthermore, there were factors that influenced their decision making in choosing the coping strategies. Some of these factors also affected the effectiveness of their coping. Personal and situational resources such as self-esteem, spousal and social support was seen to actually reduce the mothers' stress hence increased their coping effectiveness. The extent of the women's career involvement and the amount of social support they received, greatly affected their choices in deciding which strategy to take in order to satisfy the demand of their roles.

    • Word count: 2621
  12. Free essay

    Explore and evaluate competing explanations on the role and function of education.

    An 'education' is therefore something that everyone experiences, although there can arguably be huge differences in the quality of education received. Society accepts and agrees to the legal constraints placed upon it's members and school becomes an important societal structure, not only in its function as provider of knowledge, but also in the process of socialization. However, Durkheim states that education is 'only the image and reflection of society. It imitates and reproduces the latter in abbreviated forms: it does not create it' (Durkheim, 1951).

    • Word count: 2558
  13. Attitude of Pre-Marriage Couples towards Marriage

    These kind of out come stimulate the teenagers not to go for marriage and have and physical relationship before marriage. Most of the teenager is involved in such kind of relationship but they are not informed much about the outcome of this relationship, which may result in Pregnancy and in teenage they become parents. (Fulcher 2007, p.30-31) In some societies there is a trend of delayed marriage which eventually leads towards the before marriage s****l relationships as they have to fulfill their s****l needs.

    • Word count: 2696
  14. Comparative Social System Unemployment in USA and Hong Kong

    Structural unemployment refers to mismatch between the job offered by the employer and skill of the labor. (Christopher Ruhm 2000) Economists are indulge in long debate from last three decades about the causes of unemployment. Keeping in mind the above types of unemployment, economists categorized themselves in four schools of thoughts. Some said it the personal choices (frictional unemployment) of labor force which keep the unemployment as an issue. Some said it is due to the prevalence of insufficient aggregate demand for labor force in the economy (cyclical unemployment). Some are of the view point that it is because of structural inefficiencies (structural unemployment).

    • Word count: 2853
  15. A Critical Analysis of Laud Humphreys The Tearoom Trade

    Following a research paper he wrote on the subject of homosexuality in 1965 Humphreys realised that very little research had taken place into the kind of people engaged in this deviant activity. Social scientists have avoided this area of deviant behaviour........ethics and emotional problems, I suspect, provide the more serious obstacles for most prospective researchers. Humphreys (1970, p.17) Humphreys decided that the best way to study this area was to research h********l behaviour within public toilets, otherwise known as 'Tearooms' in the U.S.

    • Word count: 2418
  16. Internal and External factors of Motivation

    Carlson and Buskist (1997) describe motivation as being "a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, or persistence of an individuals behaviour"(p.415). Wordnet (n.d p.1) defines motivation "the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behaviour". There are said to be four different kinds of motivation, positive, intrinsic, negative and extrinsic (Kohn, 1999). Psychologists study motivation because they want to understand why people do things.

    • Word count: 2016
  17. Stress is a epidemic

    Collins (2010) describes and epidemic as "affecting many people in an area, example; stress has now reached epidemic proportions". Atkinson (1979) makes a link between stress and frustration, conflict, and the inability to achieve a desired outcome or goal. He also goes on to elucidate the different ways stress affects people and how they respond to it. Atkinson (1979) explains the idea of learnt helplessness which he discovered by doing experiments with dogs in which the dog was placed in a situation in which it was helpless to avoid an electric shock. Later when the Dog was given the opportunity to avoid the shock, the dog made no attempt to avoid it.

    • Word count: 2010
  18. Research on views on abortion. The researchers hypothesis is, abortion should not be allowed to under 18s without parental consent. The researcher plans to use ten parents in her study and ten non parents aged between 19 and 30.

    This law was put in place to attempt to restrict abortion. The 1990 Act then lowered the legal age limit from 28 to 24 weeks, which is currently the accepted point of viability. The specific time-limits on abortion came into effect on 1 April 1991. The moral and legal aspects of abortion are subject to intense social debate in many parts of the world. Aspects of this debate can include the public health impact of unsafe or illegal abortion as well as legal abortion's effect upon crime rates. Currently, abortion law varies from country to country, with regard to religious, moral, and cultural sensibilities.

    • Word count: 2922
  19. s*x scandal

    • Word count: 2000
  20. examine literature on the oppression of elderly people

    Kosberg does not place any emphasis on the concept of empowerment, that is; " the process by which individuals, groups or communities become able to take control of their circumstances and achieve their own goals, thereby being able to work towards maximising the quality of their lives" (Adams 1990, cited in Jack 1995:11) Rather the emphasis is placed on the actions of other stakeholders and their ability to demolish oppression of the elderly. The underlying mentality throughout the book is that the burden of resolving the problem should placed on other groups in society and not the elderly themselves.

    • Word count: 2828
  21. What can the study of suicide tell us about relationships in society?

    But probably the most significant reason for our difficulties in understanding Suicide is simply that we do not share Durkheim's general frames of reference, which includes specific knowledge and forms of thought." (Douglas 1973:13) Durkheim's research could be seen as quite a study that wasn't wide-ranging enough. Atkinson goes further into this argument. Mauss noted that the essential concern of Durkheim's work was the association between society and individuals. The general idea of this research is that society (and the moral state of society)

    • Word count: 2113
  22. Children are active in constructing their own learning. To what extent do the four grand theories of development support this statement?

    These changes, or learning, take place through a process called conditioning. Watson, along with Rayner, demonstrated this with an experiment with an 11-month-old infant named Albert B., more widely known as "Little Albert" (Watson, 1924). During the experiment they re-trained his reflex behaviour of the fear of a loud sound to a new environmental stimulus: the presence of a rat. This is known as classical conditioning and was developed from the work of Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) who developed it through his studies in the physiology of digestion.

    • Word count: 2554
  23. What evidence is there that children(TM)s development is influenced by play with siblings and peers?

    Play with siblings can be grouped in terms of being both complementary and reciprocal and it is this combination that makes sibling relationships potentially so influential: the older child can act as a teacher and both can share interest and competence and further their development. The emergence of pretend play in very young children can be seen as a very noteworthy indicator of development. As Piaget pointed out: it indicates the shift from sensorimotor to representational functioning because the child is not tied to objects as they are in reality, but can use imagination to pretend that they are something different.

    • Word count: 2670
  24. Alcoholism through the eyes of a bartender.

    The factors that contribute to alcohol consumption in the work place, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, are "workplace culture and the acceptance of drinking, workplace alienation, the availability of alcohol, and the existence and enforcement of workplace alcohol policies." (NIAAA, 2008) These are all contributing factors in the restaurant/ bar business, but the two that most contribute are the availability and the culture. Alcoholism is found at a high rate among employees of a drinking establishment and can affect many aspects of their lives.

    • Word count: 2696
  25. Compare and contrast the use of interviewing in quantitative and qualitative research. Use case studies and examples from published work to illustrate the strengths and limitations of different types of interviewing.

    Durkheim and Weber also used second hand data to analyse their social theories. "Qualitative research focuses on smaller units of society and on the understanding of the social situations and the meanings of that individuals attach to behaviours. It is a more subjective approach whereby the researcher aims to understand and interpret the experiences of the individuals involved, b viewing the world through the eyes of the individuals being studied." (I Marsh, 1996 p109) Methods of Qualitative research can include various forms of observation and unstructured interviews.

    • Word count: 2056

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to psychology

    "In conclusion to the cognitive approach within psychology, it is clear to see that the cognitive approach has under gone a lot of changes over the years in regards to what aspects to study in order to fully understand what the approach is about. Many studies have arisen trying to explain how we process information, our cognitive processes and so on. As quoted at the beginning of this essay from Groome (2006) in regards to what cognitive psychology is, it is evident from the research I have done that it is a very broad term and can often lead to different interpretations. The cognitive approach, however has often lead to different applications, for example, it has been very beneficial to those who have dysfunctional thoughts, feelings and behaviours. So I can conclude that cognitive psychology is still an on going approach and therefore does not provide us with a true and clear picture of what actually goes on within our information processing stages."

  • Compare and contrast the approach into studying children's friendships taken in the Bigelow and La Gaipa (1974) study with that taken by Wiiliam Corsaro.

    "To conclude, we need to look at each researchers methods to be able to see the discrepancies between Corsaro's findings with that of Bigelow and La Gaipa, which shows the implications of the contrasts in their research which has been highlighted in the essay. Therefore, by Corsaro using ethnography and exploring children's TMA 02 - Darlene Duncan - T1878621 - Page 05 activities as a participant, he is able to collate more complex and detailed data than Bigelow and La Gaipa during their resrearch, because research methods such as theirs, essay writing about friendship expectations, may yield an incomplete picture of a child's understanding of the social world. As Corsaro himself said, "I think we really need in our research is to remember that it's important to focus on children in their present lives. The future of childhood is in the present". (Interview with William Corsaro, 2010)."

  • Evaluate the claim that British identity is defined by shared values.

    "In conclusion, it is clear to see that the British identity is not a simple matter, the nation is not fixed or permanent and things are constantly changing. There are a number of influences that have contributed towards the British identity, and this can be defined through relationships between people and place, imagined communities, diverse societies and shared cultures that form a national identity. Culture is claimed by some people to be the habits, practices and values of a way of life, Raymond Williams (1958) (cited in Clarke, 2009, p.219) claimed that there are selective traditions that cause some aspects to be excluded, despite the view that cultural products are common to all residents, It is clear that there are a lot of sources from which to gain information about the portrayals of the British identity, although one should also take into account the writers or speakers interest or role in the matter, because they can often manipulate the wording to give or enhance particular significance."

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