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University Degree: Applied Sociology

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  1. Hong Kong Pop Culture

    The write up from the interviews in connection with the stories they tell from the collected photos will be integrated into a flowing write-up depicting the stories rather than quoting what they said from the interview as I feel the continuous usage of quotation marks and stating who said what would disrupt the story being told by these people. From the stories shared by my relatives, I will comment and analyze the youth culture they experienced when they were teenagers and evaluate if this youth culture has changed for the better or worse, starting with the riots in 1967 to the publication of Yes!

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  2. It is incorrect to draw a sharp distinction between Eastern and Western cultures and ways of thinking - Discuss.

    Let us initially consider the view that it would be incorrect to divide Eastern and Western cultures so distinctly. Many cross-cultural social psychologists have found that an "essential universality" (Lonner, 1980) exists between cultures despite apparent differences. For example, there are five main personality traits that are universally used to describe others throughout the world: stable, agreeable, outgoing, open and conscientious (John & Srivastava, 1999; McCrae & Costa, 1999). Despite the differences in results (Australians being generally more outgoing than others and Canadians being found to be more agreeable), the fact that the five traits are universal means that we cannot immediately draw a sharp distinction between East and West.

    • Word count: 2154
  3. The mass media do not make children more aggressive - Discuss.

    There can be no doubting that the research that has been carried out by psychologists over a long period of time has revealed significant evidence to prove that media does make children more aggressive (aggression can be defined as "the internal motivation behind violent behaviour" {Jackson Harris 2004}). Since 1950, there have been 3500 research studies carried out and 99.5% (all but 18) concluded that there were harmful effects for children watching violent programmes (Grossman & DeGaetano, 2001). It is surprising how much subliminal violence is featured in television shows, cartoons and movies.

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  4. What is globalisation, and why is it sociologically interesting?

    In a literal sense 'the term has two stems- the Latin socius (companionship) and the Greek logos (study of)...in these terms sociology may be defined as the study of the bases of social membership' (Abercrombie, 2004) and as a 'systematic study of human societies' (Macionis and Plummer, 2005). Giddens (1999), argues that globalisation is inherent to sociological studies; 'Globalisation is not incidental to our lives today. It is a shift in our very life circumstances. It is the way we now live.'

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  5. Outline Freud(TM)s model of the mind or psyche, and consider why this is sometimes referred to as the psychodynamic(TM) model. Include in your answer relevant key terms that are asso

    He died in London after suffering from cancer at the age of 83 on 23 September 1939. (Strachey 1962) In order to answer the above question, I will be defining the meaning of psychodynamic, using different resources, I will be outlining and explaining Freud's model of psyche, making references from books and internet and I will be considering why Freud's model of mind is sometimes referred to as psychodynamic and the key terms that are associated with Freud's thought. Psychodynamic is a model of human development that began with Freud; it is based on the idea that a large part of human mind is unconscious and that the contents of the unconscious are the reason behind our motives.

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  6. The Effect of Education on identity

    Adams knew his limits when he was in Harvard College. He knew himself and he was aware he was one of the ignorant young men in Harvard College. However, he did not remain careless about his situation. He realized that he needed to take the responsibility of improving himself. He achieved the ability of criticizing himself, which he called self-definition after years of education through judging himself and reading books that helped improve himself. Rodriguez also achieved the ability to see his real identity by himself after years. Rodriguez tells his own story from his own perspective.

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  7. Get to Know Your Nightmare: Depression and its Real Causes.

    Model and TV presenter, Melina Messenger affirmed: "I felt suicidal. I couldn't stop crying. I remember thinking, wouldn't it be great if the car crashed and I died?" (celebrities, 2006, pp.1-2).Dalida, the well-know singer, committed suicide leaving a note saying:" "Life has become unbearable ... Forgive me"(Dalida, 1987, p.1)...Martin Luther King once said: "We must accept finite disappointment, but we must never lose infinite hope". So what do we tell the people who did? These people, who once faced an obstacle fell down and were not able to move on.

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  8. Compare Qualitative and Quantitative Approach in the Study of Language

    The fundamental qualitative data is collected from language based activities such as daily conversion and interview. The analysis of the spoken interaction (i.e., discourse data) between the interviewer and the interviewee is known as discourse analysis. The object of data collection in qualitative research is 'to create a comprehensive record of participants' words and actions' (Willig, 2001, p.16). In qualitative research, data analysis often takes place alongside data collection and analysis allows the researcher to go back and refine questions, develop hypotheses and pursue emerging avenues of inquiry (Pope et al., 2000).

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  9. Review of a community study

    The authors suggest that their findings confirm that the majority of miners regarded the promise of security, prosperity and a new life following nationalisation and the welfare state as a lie . Furthermore the authors express their findings are justified and must be progressed and developed upon on rather than rejected or replaced for the 'ideological dream world of the affluent societies, embourgeoisement and the institutionalisation of conflict'. Dennis et al, 1969: 9 The method of research is defined by the authors as that of a community study technique, strongly influenced by the methodology of social anthropology.

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  10. Critically evaluate explanations of 'theory of mind', drawing out contrasts between cognitive and social accounts of this aspect of children's thinking; paying attention to recent critiques of dominant views.

    Wellman et al (1990) believes children develop theory of mind through a process of belief - desire reasoning.2 They predict people's behaviour according to what they think their beliefs and desires are. This is a very social explanation of theory of mind as it not really focused on how the thought processes occur within the child but what they believe to be true based on interactions surrounding them. Flavell (1986) was concerned with children's ability to distinguish between appearance and reality.

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    supports this view when he "criticises the tendency to treat r****m and racial discrimination as interchangeable notions." For Banton and others there is a danger that r****m will become a catchall term for quite disparate social, political and economic practices. Miles (1989) warns of the "danger of 'conceptual inflation' in relation to the term in the social sciences" (Solomos 2003: 225). The definition of racial discrimination like r****m cannot be defined in one way, and this has become the challenging debate for a number of sociologists and researchers today. In his book There ain't no Black in the Union Jack, Gilroy describes Britain's old-fashion image being hidden behind these blurs: "the first depicts the nation as a homogenous and cohesive formation in which an even and consensual cultural field provides the context for hegemonic struggle.

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  12. The Gender Divide and Achievement

    "A 'laddish culture' is seen to be one where boys' groups adopt common practices commonly associated with male groups like football and drinking (Francis, 1999c in Francis, B & Skelton, C. 2005: 44). This can be linked to the gender divisions in experience, whereby 'lads' feel that school is uncool and emasculating. The 'boys will be boys' discourse was based around the 'natural' differences between boys and girls, whereby they are seen as "conventional masculine stereotypes" of being naturally clever but lazy and difficult to motivate, competitive, independent etc (Francis, B & Skelton, C.

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    These were factors affecting people's life chances, which in turn affected health, survival and mortality. Weber moved towards a more complex view of social class structure than Marx. He defined class as property being one source of market capacity. In defining class in terms of market situation, referring to "material rewards and the life chances such as pay, security and opportunity for promotion," Weber's view of class was the population being divided up into groups according to "economic differences of market capacity that gave rise to different life chances" (Abercrombie, 2006: 56-7). However the supposed disintegration and disorganization of class structure in late/postmodernity has caused a shared belief of the death if class.

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  14. What does the term "alien" refer to in the concept of alienation? Do you find this concept plausible?

    Marx feels that man created this imagined entity called God and now he is ruled by this entity, therefore through his religion, man has alienated himself from his inner desires by placing them in the hands of the imagined entity of God. Through philosophy, man is also alienated through the concept of ideas. Man is reduced to the mental processes of speculation and logic, and he puts "the idea in the place of God" (3). Man is alienated from his true thoughts and feelings through his notion of ideas, just as he is alienated from his true desires and feelings by the notion of God.

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  15. Did Hobbes demonstrate that a valid theory of government could be derived from a general theory of human nature?

    Finally, and perhaps most importantly for Hobbes in the context of developing a theory for successful government, the natural condition and urges of man provide a justification for the absolute obedience to a sovereign required to uphold social order. The resonance of the deleterious effects of man's natural condition with the events of Hobbes's time (and history as he knew it), seems to show how easily the spread of indiscipline and inequality of values can bring about the ruin of society and lead to people's lives becoming "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short".

    • Word count: 2156
  16. In considering Locke's analysis of the state of nature, we shall mainly be examining his Two Treatises of Government (1689).

    Philosophers then try to imagine what it would be like to live in these circumstances. Not all philosophers actually believed that the state of nature had been a real stage in human development, Jean Jacques Rousseau, with no Darwin to compel him, thought that it would have taken far too long for human society to develop in this way (from primal to political) while Locke thought that there still were present-day models of people living in the state of nature, namely native Americans and in Soldania1.

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  17. To analyse the following piece of Leviathan: "The Obligation of subjects to the Sovereign, is understood to last as long, and no longer, than the power lasteth, by which he is able to protect them. For the right men have by Nature

    (chap. 21, p.153). This extract can be found in Leviathan's Part 2, 'Of Common-wealth'. It is preceded by 'Of Man', in which after having described men, their defining features, (such as the use of words, reason, judgement), Hobbes concludes that because men are born equal, but at the same time differ immensely in their opinions, and in the objects of their passions, no man can assume that his own judgement is better than that of one other, and, in dubious situations, men cannot come to any kind of agreement on what is good or bad; right or wrong.

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  18. How Does Hobbes Justify The Authority Of

    The closest comparison to 'The State of Nature' could be North America just after colonial rule and the settling of the relatively lawless west. Another example could be the book, "The Lord of the Flies," by William Golding, a story about a group of boys marooned on a desert island together and how they consequently interact, sometimes quite violently. He believed that all humans acting rationally would always protect themselves from any perceived threat. In this 'state of nature' people would kill each other in order to minimalise the risk of their own death.

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  19. Assess the view that bureaucracy is the most efficient form of organization.

    It is true that bureaucracy can evolve and become a personification of a slow, inefficient, unproductive machine or robot, an un-motivating place to work where employees are restricted to become cogs in the machine, thereby destroying innovation and personal development. To fully understand the organisational structure that is bureaucracy we need to look at its original conception, subsequently we can look at its perceived advantages and dysfunctions. Several theorists have made major contributions to the theories of bureaucracies. The classic theories of bureaucracy were formulated by Max Weber, Robert Michels, Bruno Rizzi, Karl Marx and elaborating on Marx's work, Leon Trotsky (Lev Davidovich Bronstein)

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  20. What difficulties arise in describing the international political theory of Hobbes and Rousseau as 'realist'?

    Bearing this fact in mind it is quite easy to see why Hobbes views human nature with some contempt. In 'Leviathan', Hobbes main writings try to show how he thinks humans would act without government, moral values and the basic concept of society, which he titles, 'The Natural Condition of Mankind' or 'The State of Nature'. From this vision of mankind, Hobbes then gives rules on how to govern legitimately and correctly. However, Hobbes arguments have generated a number of criticisms. In 'Leviathan', Hobbes spends a great deal of time discussing and finding out what exactly human nature is.

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  21. Introduction to Political Thought

    Therefore, every human seeks "self-preservation." Hobbes gives a solution to humans' state of nature, and that is to give up our rights to a sovereign; to form a contract with any government to protect us, in exchange for obedience to the sovereign. However, Thomas Hobbes fails to see the inconsistency in his argument. If the state of nature were really as Hobbes depicts it, there would be no way of escaping it, not even through any form of government. There are many points to prove this.

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  22. How Thomas Hobbes views human nature and concludes the best form of government is monarchy

    The nature of man contains the three causes of disagreement. First, people are in competition for the same things that they need for survival. Second, everyone knows that anyone may attack him, his family or his property so to defend himself he attacks others from whom he expects a threat. Martinich points out," If there is natural desire for something, then there is a right to fulfil that desire. There is a natural desire for self-preservation. Therefore, there is a right to self-preservation."1 Hobbes' view of self-preservation is that anyone who has the desire for self-preservation has the right to do whatever is necessary to achieve self-preservation even if the necessity is to kill others.

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  23. Political Philosophy: What is Hobbes theory of political representation.

    He would need to be sympathetic to the ideas of the group living within in the areas he represents. Therefore their appearance, behaviour and the image they portray comes into consideration, they need to appear 'up to the mark' of student no: 0317003 the job in hand. Unlike in Hobbes theory our political representatives (even the leaders) in Democratic societies do not have absolute rule. We always have the chance to change that representation at the next election time by choosing to vote for another representative.

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  24. Why did Hobbes believe that fear was the basis of political obligation?

    In it, mankind is doomed to a "continuall feare" of "danger of violent death"4. As a result of human nature5, and our desire for gain, safety and reputation6, and our "love [for] liberty, and dominion over others"7 it is certain that men will continue to be, "during the time [that] men without a common power to keep them all in awe", involved in a state of perpetual war.8 In the state of nature, and in all states, men have an inalienable right to self-preservation called The Right of Nature. It is our right "by all means we can to defend ourselves" 9.

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  25. Hobbes – A Bourgeois Model of Society?

    Hobbes could, perhaps, be described as a 'child of his time'. He lived through the social chaos of the English civil war, which gave him much opportunity to observe the conflictual side of man's nature. His prescription for society, contained within Leviathan, was based on what he believed makes man a conflictual animal. This prescription was directed towards creating a society that allowed for this basic conflictual nature of man and yet would permit people to live in relative peace and security.

    • Word count: 2360

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