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University Degree: Applied Sociology

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
  1. The Art of Choosing. Sheena Iyengar presents a revolutionary book on the most fundamental and mundane aspect of human survival making choices. The Art of Choosing is ground breaking in that Iyengar deconstructs and analyzes the complex relations

    To eliminate this discomfort, it is necessary to adjust one's attitude in line with one's behaviour." (Crisp & Turner 2010; 381) People often feel bad when they perform a behaviour that is inconsistent with their attitude - this can be seen as internal imbalance. People will look for ways to try to explain the dissonance and if nothing is available, they will resort to the only means left to resolve the discrepancy, and that is to change their attitude so that it matches their behaviour.

    • Word count: 3175
  2. The report into the tragic death of David Bennett has shown beyond doubt the importance of stepping up efforts to improve mental health care for black people in Britain," Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (SCMH) chief executive Dr Matt Muijen said

    Nevertheless for the next 13 years DB was in and out of mental institutions, over medicated and generally feared due to his athletic physique and the colour of his skin. The inquiry found that there were many instances of racial abuse towards DB by other patients which was not dealt with appropriately. It also found that DB's cultural, social and religious needs were not met On the night of his death, David Bennett was removed from the Drayton Ward to the Norvic clinic following an incident with a white patient.

    • Word count: 3347
  3. What are the effects of violent video games on the society?

    From this theory, aggression could increase if violence was both rewarded and observed (like in violent media). People experiencing aggression at high levels can cause harmful effects for society, including criminal behavior. A longitudinal study involving 856 youths concluded that violence seen on television during early childhood was positively related to the youths' antisocial behavior 10 years later (Eron, et al 253-63). This analysis does not intend to imply that aggression is solely determined by violence in the media. According to Hogg and Cooper, the primary causes of aggression are a convergence of situational instigators like aversive conditions and several personal characteristics such as hostile world schemas (277-279).

    • Word count: 3799
  4. Discuss how Paul Willis has examined the purpose of education in Learning to Labour (1977). You must direct your response to issues in Education Studies.

    For the fourth theme, I have opted to philosophize about the psychology behind Paul Willis' results and the influence it has on education today. Why was 'Learning to Labour' such a landmark study? For the fifth theme, personal motivation is the underlying motif that is laced through the entire subject matter. I challenge the reader to consider this during the reading of this paper and also to contemplate the power of personal motivation in regards to each of the four key themes.

    • Word count: 3475
  5. Multiculturalism and its discontents: Discuss.

    The relationship can be summarized in one single statement: prosperity versus primacy. Challenging the reader to consider the effects of multiculturalism upon this subgroup, I will lace this objective throughout the exploration of the four subject areas which are, and within an educational and societal framework: the hidden curriculum; life chances; society & culture and; Britishness & citizenship. In addition to all of this, I invite the reader, whilst working through the subject areas, to consider such themes as: integration; assimilation; prosperity; primacy; tolerance; and superiority. Due to the word limitations of this essay, it is impossible to account for all cultural groups such as race, s*x, religion, s****l preference, age etc.

    • Word count: 3727
  6. The Commercialization of Childhood: The Pinwheel of Disney

    The idea of childhood is under constant change along with history. It is not always synonymous with innocence, fun and purity, in fact it can be considered as one of the most important inventions of after the industrial revolution. Children used to have no autonomy, separate status, privileges or any forms of social right that were entirely their own.1 There was no separate world of childhood. Not only do they used to share the same lives with adults, also they were expected to participate in work as soon as they could.

    • Word count: 3356
  7. Health and Illness can only be understood when taking into account their social and cultural context. Discuss

    From the 17th century to the first decades of the 20th century illness was believed to be unavoidable. Some people believed that it was the work of the devil. Until the Second World War, doctors were able to do little to affect the course of most diseases, but their services were still in great demand. People had a tendency to die of acute illnesses for instance influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis. Nowadays the illnesses that trouble societies are Chronic, such as Cancer, Heart disease and diabetes. Still, although these diseases can't be healed, they are managed. The bio-medical model views physical illness as being related to an exact pathogen (disease-causing organism).

    • Word count: 3706
  8. The aim of the assignment is to explore how youth work has developed in order to respond to the changing social developments of young people. Historical periods which highlighted changes to the youth service will be documented, and the exploration of key

    Even some Marxist historians have credited 19th-century Sunday schools with empowering the working classes. (Timothy Larsen 2008). Hannah Moore (1745-1833) and her sister Martha soon followed in this movement. This was a possible starting point for youth work in the late 18th Century. Hannah attempted to make school sessions entertaining and varied, she felt programmes had to be planned and suited to the level of the children attending. Activities and classes were made to be as entertaining as possible. Hannah advised using singing when energy and attention was waning. (Smith M, 2002). On June 6th 1844, the YMCA (Young Mens Christian Association)

    • Word count: 3420
  9. Attitudes towards Depression: Developing a Reliable and Valid Questionnaire

    Likert (1932) tried a "number of specific techniques to first generate items, and then select from among them those that were valid, unidimensional (all measuring a common trait), and well discriminating" (Uebersax, 2006). He even used judges to find out about the items quality and content. Likert scaling is a formal name of all of those methods. By Likert's method, a person's attitude can be measured. This is done by combining (adding or averaging) people's responses across all items. This "adding or averaging across several items was essential for Likert to contribute to genuine measurement" (Uebersax, 2006).

    • Word count: 4441
  10. How did Margaret Thatcher become Prime Minister? A discussion of her life with reference to Daniel Levinsons Phases of Adult Life Development and Astins Career Model and their relevance to choices in Margaret Thatchers life and car

    1992 Entered the House of Lords as Baroness Thatcher. Introduction The two main theories that will be discussed are those of adulthood development as outlined by Daniel Levinson in his book A Season's of a Man's Life (1978) as well as the work of Astin (1984) and her model of career choice and work development. Through referenced examples from her life this essay will attempt to highlight how the choices made by Margaret Thatcher can be examined using the framework of these two theories. Particular focus will be given to Astin's work when examining the childhood and early years of Thatcher's adult life.

    • Word count: 6119
  11. HOW MIGHT YOU EXPLAIN THE EXISTENCE OF INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH?

    Death rates are expressed as the number of deaths per 100,000 populations. The rate may be restricted to deaths in specific age, race, s*x, or geographic groups (specific rate) or it might be age-adjusted to a standard population. Alternatively, it may be related to the entire population and be unadjusted for the distribution of ages in the population (crude rate). A disease or condition may have a high case fertility rate yet have a low mortality rate; even if most people who contract the disease die from it, if relatively few people in the population contract the disease the mortality rate will be low.

    • Word count: 3617
  12. A Survey Report on Literature Reading of Chinese Students

    From the perspective of all the human beings, the narration in A History of Reading has described the development of reading as a gradual progress from reading aloud and collective reading to silent reading and reading privately. This is a seemingly smooth and peaceful progress of individualization, but in its essence full of the human beings' surprise, delights, tremors and bewilderment. Reading is at the same time inevitably affected by the historical backgrounds of different eras, for reading has been an individual but also collective activity up to present.

    • Word count: 8288
  13. The relationship between welfare provision and homelessness

    It is the victims behaviour that often becomes the centre of focus, not the underlying factor or factors; the lack of a home. There are also others in our society that believe homelessness is not the result of an individual's personal incompetence and behaviour, but homelessness is the result of failed government policies. Homeless people face many inequalities to welfare provision in relation to access of housing, health, employment, education and social inclusion. These inequalities are present in most aspects of a homeless persons' life.

    • Word count: 3456
  14. Discuss some of the ways in which technologically mediated communication has helped to constitute the distinctive character of modern social life.

    As previously mentioned, the media plays a significant contribution to society. It can provide information, an analysis/interpretation of news by journalists, promotion and entertainment with its goal of serving as a bridge between consumer and the world, connecting us to people, images, information/ideas and people (Whannel, 1998). McCombs (1994) writes that it is an agency so powerful that occasionally our total behaviour can be instantly and completely dictated by what we may see and hear and of which can sometimes have a priming effect on society (Jo and Berkowitz, 1994).

    • Word count: 5298
  15. Discuss the definition of and development of community and arising the definition of community development: Outline and discuss the contemporary issues affecting Community Development. Critique one community development project with which you are familiar

    - thus, giving rise to "fears about the supposed contemporary loss of community" (Wellman, 1999). The fear surrounding the breakdown of community is captured in Putman's (2000) 'Bowling Alone' very clearly. Wellman, a proponent of network analysis argues that community undergoes transmutation (transformation). Therefore, Community, of course, had never been lost. Yet since the industrial revolution, most people have believed that large-scale technological and social changes destroyed community in the developed world and were well on their way to killing it in developing countries (Wellman, 1999).

    • Word count: 7386
  16. modernisation vs dependancy theory

    Although this could be seen as the starting point for modernisation, modernisation theories did not emerge until after the outbreak of World War two in 1939. Modernisation theory emerged from three crucial events, in the world war two era. First, the United States rose as a super-power. The U.S was not weakened by World War two, unlike Britain, France and Germany. The U.S emerged from the war strengthened and became a world leader, with the help of the Marshall Plan.

    • Word count: 3197
  17. Does Hobbes Sovereign or Locke's civil government provide better protection for the citizen?

    Locke's views were simple, they were fundamentally based around "be like, you'd like to be done by". In Locke's state of nature he recognises the law of reason where there is no subordination, more compromise, co-operation and the chance for self-preservation ("liberty not license" you don't have the right to destroy yourself). One of the main differences between Locke and Hobbes is their view of property in the state of nature. Hobbes makes it clear that he believes you can't have property without a sovereign because "everyman has a right to everything, even to one another's body"5.

    • Word count: 3427
  18. A comparative exploration investigating the theories of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau on the foundation of society.

    These, and further questions, shall provide us with sufficient momentum to ultimately embark upon the journey of exploring contrasting theories, delineated by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau respectively, in discovering the hypothetical foundation of society, as well as self-reflection. CHAPTER TWO Exposition In this section, a compartmentalized exploration into the reasons advanced by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau respectively, with regard to the movement from a state of nature to a form of civil society is undertaken. a) Thomas Hobbes' Paranoid Need for the Sovereign Hobbes' Leviathan was written as a response to the fear he experienced during the political turmoil of the English Civil Wars.

    • Word count: 3110
  19. Hobbes and Sovereignty

    In other words, survival, or self-preservation, is the main driving force of all human beings. When two men met, they would either, have to fight or flee, in a state of nature. In conjunction with the wanting of dominance over others or the fear of others domination of oneself, men will also fight in a state of nature for glory, honor and reputation. Although at first glance the battle for glory, honor and reputation that occurs in a state of nature may appear to be contradictory with self-preservation, it is actually helping to achieve self-preservation.

    • Word count: 4002
  20. This evaluation study will thoroughly study factors that influence teen pregnancy and parenting on the educational advancement of a girl child in Buea-Cameroon.

    In their study they failed to find a significant association between depression and substance abuse amongst the youth of the blacks as well as the Puerto Rican states. On the contrary they found a very strong association between the two factors when researching the white youngsters, and that too amongst the girls more then the boys.         Siegel and Ehrlich (1989) in the study also concluded that there was a high amount of socioeconomic status (SES) differentiation between the adolescents who suffered depression due to substance abuse.

    • Word count: 32767
  21. Research - In this assignment, we are trying to find the factors and effects of online addiction for university students.

    The activities of online addiction always include the relationships, gaming, information searching and money. Relationships meanings students spend a lot of time to stay in chat rooms, start the online friendships replace the real-life friends. Gaming is those use computer to play multi-user games such as online-game and Lan game. People who compulsive search the information include s*x is also called online addiction. At the same time, online gambling is also become a problem and is quickly moving up the scale to addiction in university students. (Young, 1998) Excessive internet use is a more common problem in university students.

    • Word count: 6087

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to psychology

    "In conclusion to the cognitive approach within psychology, it is clear to see that the cognitive approach has under gone a lot of changes over the years in regards to what aspects to study in order to fully understand what the approach is about. Many studies have arisen trying to explain how we process information, our cognitive processes and so on. As quoted at the beginning of this essay from Groome (2006) in regards to what cognitive psychology is, it is evident from the research I have done that it is a very broad term and can often lead to different interpretations. The cognitive approach, however has often lead to different applications, for example, it has been very beneficial to those who have dysfunctional thoughts, feelings and behaviours. So I can conclude that cognitive psychology is still an on going approach and therefore does not provide us with a true and clear picture of what actually goes on within our information processing stages."

  • Compare and contrast the approach into studying children's friendships taken in the Bigelow and La Gaipa (1974) study with that taken by Wiiliam Corsaro.

    "To conclude, we need to look at each researchers methods to be able to see the discrepancies between Corsaro's findings with that of Bigelow and La Gaipa, which shows the implications of the contrasts in their research which has been highlighted in the essay. Therefore, by Corsaro using ethnography and exploring children's TMA 02 - Darlene Duncan - T1878621 - Page 05 activities as a participant, he is able to collate more complex and detailed data than Bigelow and La Gaipa during their resrearch, because research methods such as theirs, essay writing about friendship expectations, may yield an incomplete picture of a child's understanding of the social world. As Corsaro himself said, "I think we really need in our research is to remember that it's important to focus on children in their present lives. The future of childhood is in the present". (Interview with William Corsaro, 2010)."

  • Evaluate the claim that British identity is defined by shared values.

    "In conclusion, it is clear to see that the British identity is not a simple matter, the nation is not fixed or permanent and things are constantly changing. There are a number of influences that have contributed towards the British identity, and this can be defined through relationships between people and place, imagined communities, diverse societies and shared cultures that form a national identity. Culture is claimed by some people to be the habits, practices and values of a way of life, Raymond Williams (1958) (cited in Clarke, 2009, p.219) claimed that there are selective traditions that cause some aspects to be excluded, despite the view that cultural products are common to all residents, It is clear that there are a lot of sources from which to gain information about the portrayals of the British identity, although one should also take into account the writers or speakers interest or role in the matter, because they can often manipulate the wording to give or enhance particular significance."

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