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University Degree: Applied Sociology

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  1. Hong Kong Pop Culture

    The write up from the interviews in connection with the stories they tell from the collected photos will be integrated into a flowing write-up depicting the stories rather than quoting what they said from the interview as I feel the continuous usage of quotation marks and stating who said what would disrupt the story being told by these people. From the stories shared by my relatives, I will comment and analyze the youth culture they experienced when they were teenagers and evaluate if this youth culture has changed for the better or worse, starting with the riots in 1967 to the publication of Yes!

    • Word count: 2302
  2. It is incorrect to draw a sharp distinction between Eastern and Western cultures and ways of thinking - Discuss.

    Let us initially consider the view that it would be incorrect to divide Eastern and Western cultures so distinctly. Many cross-cultural social psychologists have found that an "essential universality" (Lonner, 1980) exists between cultures despite apparent differences. For example, there are five main personality traits that are universally used to describe others throughout the world: stable, agreeable, outgoing, open and conscientious (John & Srivastava, 1999; McCrae & Costa, 1999). Despite the differences in results (Australians being generally more outgoing than others and Canadians being found to be more agreeable), the fact that the five traits are universal means that we cannot immediately draw a sharp distinction between East and West.

    • Word count: 2154
  3. The mass media do not make children more aggressive - Discuss.

    There can be no doubting that the research that has been carried out by psychologists over a long period of time has revealed significant evidence to prove that media does make children more aggressive (aggression can be defined as "the internal motivation behind violent behaviour" {Jackson Harris 2004}). Since 1950, there have been 3500 research studies carried out and 99.5% (all but 18) concluded that there were harmful effects for children watching violent programmes (Grossman & DeGaetano, 2001). It is surprising how much subliminal violence is featured in television shows, cartoons and movies.

    • Word count: 2108
  4. How does culture impact on the expression of emotion?

    In his 1872 classic works, The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin put forward the idea that facial expressions of emotion are biologically innate and are a result of evolutionary adaptations. These adaptations arise to ensure the survival of the species, and Darwin supports this theory with examples, one of which is that of the expression of disgust or rejection stemming from an organism's attempt to rid itself of something unpleasant (Darwin, 1872). Furthermore, Darwin stated that emotions are not only expressed universally in humans, but also across species, such as in gorillas (Matsumoto & Juang, 2004, pp.

    • Word count: 1845
  5. How are bodies socially constructed?

    By looking primarily at the social construction of femininity, a subject which has typically been theorised extensively when looking at the body, an attempt will then be made to look at the social construction of masculinities and the aging body, in relation to the complex role that society's expectations have to play. The body is often seen as something which is 'straightforwardly biological, 'natural' and given.' (Macionis and Plummer, 2005). Unsurprisingly different types of bodies can be seen in terms of shapes, sizes and physical build; however there is an increasing notion of what aesthetically is socially acceptable, with women in the media industry in particular being promoted in a certain way.

    • Word count: 1602
  6. What is globalisation, and why is it sociologically interesting?

    In a literal sense 'the term has two stems- the Latin socius (companionship) and the Greek logos (study of)...in these terms sociology may be defined as the study of the bases of social membership' (Abercrombie, 2004) and as a 'systematic study of human societies' (Macionis and Plummer, 2005). Giddens (1999), argues that globalisation is inherent to sociological studies; 'Globalisation is not incidental to our lives today. It is a shift in our very life circumstances. It is the way we now live.'

    • Word count: 2091
  7. Outline Freud(TM)s model of the mind or psyche, and consider why this is sometimes referred to as the psychodynamic(TM) model. Include in your answer relevant key terms that are asso

    He died in London after suffering from cancer at the age of 83 on 23 September 1939. (Strachey 1962) In order to answer the above question, I will be defining the meaning of psychodynamic, using different resources, I will be outlining and explaining Freud's model of psyche, making references from books and internet and I will be considering why Freud's model of mind is sometimes referred to as psychodynamic and the key terms that are associated with Freud's thought. Psychodynamic is a model of human development that began with Freud; it is based on the idea that a large part of human mind is unconscious and that the contents of the unconscious are the reason behind our motives.

    • Word count: 2332

    Death rates are expressed as the number of deaths per 100,000 populations. The rate may be restricted to deaths in specific age, race, s*x, or geographic groups (specific rate) or it might be age-adjusted to a standard population. Alternatively, it may be related to the entire population and be unadjusted for the distribution of ages in the population (crude rate). A disease or condition may have a high case fertility rate yet have a low mortality rate; even if most people who contract the disease die from it, if relatively few people in the population contract the disease the mortality rate will be low.

    • Word count: 3617
  9. Formation of an Identity through escape

    As a result, person ends up escaping from his difficult situation rather than try to deal with it. What Houdini used for escaping is confinement. He used his body "language" to grab people's attention, to make them curious about him. He could achieve having people's attention to his ability rather than to his real identity by making them curious about himself. He did not want people to comment on his identity as a foreigner. That is why he found a way to prevent people from judging his identity related to his culture.

    • Word count: 1841
  10. The Effect of Education on identity

    Adams knew his limits when he was in Harvard College. He knew himself and he was aware he was one of the ignorant young men in Harvard College. However, he did not remain careless about his situation. He realized that he needed to take the responsibility of improving himself. He achieved the ability of criticizing himself, which he called self-definition after years of education through judging himself and reading books that helped improve himself. Rodriguez also achieved the ability to see his real identity by himself after years. Rodriguez tells his own story from his own perspective.

    • Word count: 2411
  11. What is meant by the social construction of normality and abnormality?

    It is clear that defining 'abnormality' is a complex ideology. Even within these four 'groups' there are criticisms for as to why they are not effective. These four concepts do not take into account cultural differences and fail to include the importance of biological influence, hence, presenting us with an extremely complex idea, which is impossible to define. A social construction is the norms, values and belief systems that are created and shared among the majority of society. These rules or laws are naturally adhered to, resulting in 'normal' behaviour, any deviation from these 'laws' is seen as 'abnormal' hence resulting in the 'abnormal' behaviour shown becoming stigmatised.

    • Word count: 1302
  12. Nature vs Nurtuer

    Colors are superbly natural as expected in the movie. 2. How closely does the movie storyline relate to the novel? If there are differences, what can the possible reason(s) be for these changes? The movie's storyline is quite different that the novel's. The Graphic novel has some scenes that the movie doesn't have for example the r**e scene. They probably didn't include that in the movie to make it less disturbing and appropriate to show the youth as well. Also some characters were introduced differently from the novel.

    • Word count: 1035
  13. Examine critically the changing patterns of gender in Sweden in the post-war period.

    Women's salaries are only 71 percent of those paid to men for similar work, according to the report. (www.isa.se) During the 20th century, Sweden developed into a modern welfare state. This was made possible by a favorable political and economic development in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway). From the late 19th century, the Nordic countries developed from agrarian societies to fully industrialised societies. Parallel with economic development, democratic institutions and parlamentarism were introduced and this saw to the women's liberation movement which took off in the 1970s, the Swedish government passed laws mandating equality in every aspect of public life and even some aspects of private live.

    • Word count: 1979
  14. Teenage Prgnancy and Moral Panic

    (1972, Pg 9) Cohen Also stated that a moral panic has begun when "a condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests."(972, Pg 9) Those who start a panic do so when they fear a threat to prevailing social or cultural values, are known by researchers as "moral entrepreneurs", while the people who supposedly threaten the social order are known as a "folk devil". The moral panic of teenage mothers came in to existence in the late 1970's and peeked in the 1980's and early 1990's with the new right and underclass theories of the conservative government led by Margaret Thatcher.

    • Word count: 1439
  15. Key Words Glossary

    (Elliot: 2007, p. 62) Freud believed that this was a type of rite of passage in developing a sense of self for a child and was a key factor adding to the development of self identity and personality. Freud also suggested that the effects of the Oedipus Complex on the family, leads to a "complex, ambivalent relationship with gender and s****l difference" (Elliot: 2007, p. 63). Freud believes that this desire is repressed by the fathers' threat of castration of the son. Freud also believed that The Oedipus Complex is "a structuring emotional event in the life of every individual" (Elliot: 2007; 65)

    • Word count: 1473
  16. How useful are dietary guidelines in enabling people to eat better

    They also serve as the basis for food and nutrition programmes' (Dowler: 2008, Lecture note). Such rationalization and medicalization of diet and health issues from dietary guidelines has brought about a significant change. There can be no doubt, in a technical sense, modern scientific formulations of the physiological mechanisms which articulate the links between diet and health, offer great explanatory power and theoretical sophistication. Moreover, the rationalization of diet has seen professional groups, and the state itself, progressively claim ever more authority over nutritional knowledge and over dietary choices.

    • Word count: 1890
  17. Get to Know Your Nightmare: Depression and its Real Causes.

    Model and TV presenter, Melina Messenger affirmed: "I felt suicidal. I couldn't stop crying. I remember thinking, wouldn't it be great if the car crashed and I died?" (celebrities, 2006, pp.1-2).Dalida, the well-know singer, committed suicide leaving a note saying:" "Life has become unbearable ... Forgive me"(Dalida, 1987, p.1)...Martin Luther King once said: "We must accept finite disappointment, but we must never lose infinite hope". So what do we tell the people who did? These people, who once faced an obstacle fell down and were not able to move on.

    • Word count: 2856
  18. A Survey Report on Literature Reading of Chinese Students

    From the perspective of all the human beings, the narration in A History of Reading has described the development of reading as a gradual progress from reading aloud and collective reading to silent reading and reading privately. This is a seemingly smooth and peaceful progress of individualization, but in its essence full of the human beings' surprise, delights, tremors and bewilderment. Reading is at the same time inevitably affected by the historical backgrounds of different eras, for reading has been an individual but also collective activity up to present.

    • Word count: 8288
  19. Making Sense of Sport and Physical Education

    Sport is used in society as a means to control these behaviours and acts as a social tool which is seen differently by a number of social theorists as the effects of sport produce what some may perceive to contain negative outcomes but others as positive and advantageous to society. Structural functionalism is a sociological paradigm used by sociologists to put forward their thoughts of how they view the occurrence of stability in society and how it should be maintained, meanwhile underlining the importance of adaptation and integration into society's circles.

    • Word count: 1954
  20. Discuss the adequacy of social control(TM) as an explanatory concept with reference to social welfare and its relationship to childhood and family life

    One definition of social control lies in the response to 'socially problematic behaviour which are actually conceived of as such, whether in the reactive sense...or in the proactive sense.' For him these responses may be sponsored directly by the state or by autonomous professional agents (Cohen in Mulvany, 1989: 223). This definition is by no means complete as the focus lies in the control of 'problematic behaviour'. Cohen does not take into account the manipulation and control of those who are not socially problematic.

    • Word count: 1373
  21. Compare Qualitative and Quantitative Approach in the Study of Language

    The fundamental qualitative data is collected from language based activities such as daily conversion and interview. The analysis of the spoken interaction (i.e., discourse data) between the interviewer and the interviewee is known as discourse analysis. The object of data collection in qualitative research is 'to create a comprehensive record of participants' words and actions' (Willig, 2001, p.16). In qualitative research, data analysis often takes place alongside data collection and analysis allows the researcher to go back and refine questions, develop hypotheses and pursue emerging avenues of inquiry (Pope et al., 2000).

    • Word count: 2562
  22. The relationship between welfare provision and homelessness

    It is the victims behaviour that often becomes the centre of focus, not the underlying factor or factors; the lack of a home. There are also others in our society that believe homelessness is not the result of an individual's personal incompetence and behaviour, but homelessness is the result of failed government policies. Homeless people face many inequalities to welfare provision in relation to access of housing, health, employment, education and social inclusion. These inequalities are present in most aspects of a homeless persons' life.

    • Word count: 3456
  23. Discuss some of the ways in which technologically mediated communication has helped to constitute the distinctive character of modern social life.

    As previously mentioned, the media plays a significant contribution to society. It can provide information, an analysis/interpretation of news by journalists, promotion and entertainment with its goal of serving as a bridge between consumer and the world, connecting us to people, images, information/ideas and people (Whannel, 1998). McCombs (1994) writes that it is an agency so powerful that occasionally our total behaviour can be instantly and completely dictated by what we may see and hear and of which can sometimes have a priming effect on society (Jo and Berkowitz, 1994).

    • Word count: 5298
  24. Discussing the globalization of the economy and the globalization of culture.

    People today have a global outlook, this means that people are looking more to sources other than the nation state in formulating their own sense of identity, these acts actually speed up the process of globalization. Local cultural identities in various parts of the world are experiencing powerful revival at a time when the traditional hold of the nation state is undergoing profound transformation. In Europe for example, inhabitants of Scotland and the Basque region of Spain might be more likely to identify themselves as Scottish or Basque or simply as Europeans rather than as British or Spanish.

    • Word count: 1901
  25. Review of a community study

    The authors suggest that their findings confirm that the majority of miners regarded the promise of security, prosperity and a new life following nationalisation and the welfare state as a lie . Furthermore the authors express their findings are justified and must be progressed and developed upon on rather than rejected or replaced for the 'ideological dream world of the affluent societies, embourgeoisement and the institutionalisation of conflict'. Dennis et al, 1969: 9 The method of research is defined by the authors as that of a community study technique, strongly influenced by the methodology of social anthropology.

    • Word count: 2416

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