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University Degree: Political & Economic Sociology

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  1. The Promotion of Children's Rights in Zambia.

    the children mostly suffer from poverty , hunger, lack of access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation , lack of decent shelter, destitution , exposure to numerous epidemics and illiteracy .(FNDP, 2006 - 2010) HISTORY OF THE CHILD'S RIGHT In the early 20th century, moves began to promote the idea of children's rights as distinct from those of t adults and as requiring explicit recognition. The polish educationalist Janusz Korczak wrote of the rights of children in his book How to love a child (warsaw,1919); a later book was entitled.

    • Word count: 3486
  2. Racial Discrimination. I will discuss about the issue of racial discrimination in employment and in the workplace in the United States

    According to a study on the effects of race on hiring decisions by the Supreme Court, it is found that racial discrimination is still alive and grows well. Applicants in Milwaukee, Wisconsin including white applicants and black applicants are divided into four groups. They are white applicants with a criminal record, whites without a criminal record, blacks with a criminal record and lastly blacks without a criminal record. They are all given the comparable resumes and sent their resumes to the same employers.

    • Word count: 1646
  3. The Social security system in Hong Kong. In the essay, we would concentrate on discussing the strength and weakness of Comprehensive Social Security Assistance (CSSA) Scheme and Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF).

    They face financial difficulty in supporting their families and taking their children. They have continuous dependence on CSSA which average last for 2.9 years. 3. The ageing problem in Hong Kong becomes more serious nowadays. As people age and retire from the work force they can no longer rely on full-time employment to generate the financial resources they need to live. They must depend on their personal savings, support from their family, private or state-sponsored pensions, or means-tested social assistance.

    • Word count: 3104
  4. Welfare state. It was during the Greta Depression in the 1930s that the concept of welfare state was introduced in the United States.

    In a welfare state, a direct transfer of funds take place from the government (public sector) to the receivers of welfare, and often include contributions from the private sector as well in the form of redistributionist taxation. Such a system of distributing welfare often is called a mixed economy. Discussion It was during the Greta Depression in the 1930s that the concept of welfare state was introduced in the United States. After the legislation of 1960, it was for the first time that a person who was not old enough or did not have a handicap could receive aid of some form from the government, including general welfare payments.

    • Word count: 1628
  5. Globalization. In terms of the novelty or emergence of globalisation, this essay shall adopt the transformalist view that globalization is not a new phenomenon, the processes have been around for a long time, but it is the discourse which is new (Myers,

    This has therefore made exchanges in all the dimensions of globalization speedier and also meant the fast growth of globalization. Space and time compression has created a more convenient alternative for humankind, the chances of people going back to long; unreliable means of travel due to their desire to bring globalization to an end is insane. Furthermore, information technology has enabled public access to heaps of information from all over the world. Technology such as the internet has enabled widespread global communication through the use of social networking, blogs, and chat rooms and so on for both informal and business

    • Word count: 3331
  6. Although many people argue against abortion, I strongly believe that abortion should be legalized in order to prevent women from unwanted childbearing and avoid back-alley abortions. My opinion will be justified further by means of a series of tools, name

    First, a woman should not be forced to continue an unwanted pregnancy. In some cases, it may be ethical for a pregnant woman to have an abortion is she has been raped, is a victim of incest or has unexpected pregnancy. It would be cruel not to allow a woman to abort the fetus. The fetus is unborn offspring from the end of the week eight until birth. A woman has the right to an abortion if the amniocentesis tests show that the fetus will have serious disabilities in order to prevent newborn children from suffering later on in life.

    • Word count: 1654
  7. In what ways did the Second World War highlight important issues of child welfare, and with what outcomes?

    It is also important to mention that this became one of many forms of welfare system that had already been in place at that time. Friendly societies, health insurance companies, charitable companies and mutually owned organisations had for many years prior to this provided healthcare and support to people across the country (Nicholas, 2001). Another important political factor in the development of early welfare legislation was the realisation that it was important to keep the youth of society healthy in order to have healthy conscripts to the military.

    • Word count: 3084
  8. In this essay, I will discuss whether the Social Security invests in a diversified portfolio that includes stocks and corporate bonds or should it continue to invest in Treasury Bills. Then, I will debate whether the investment of corporate bonds and stoc

    (Palmer 15) This does not seem to be an optimal portfolio. The trust fund could buy stocks or corporate bonds by making large sales of Treasury bonds. For example, the Trust Fund could purchases $1 billion worth of stocks by just selling $1 billion worth of Treasury bonds. The amount of dollar worth of assets will not change; however, the stocks and corporate bonds could generate higher revenue than the treasury bonds in the future. Analysts have studied that adding stocks and corporate bonds to individual accounts or to the Trust Fund will increase the expected return of the portfolio.

    • Word count: 3105
  9. This essay aims to discuss Colin Buchanans and Hans Mondermans views about the way traffic and people should be ordered. It will then go on to explain the similarities and differences between their concepts and theories.

    Examples of this can be seen in Milton Keynes, Castle Vale in Birmingham and Brasilia (Silva, 2009, pp. 330 - 331) Monderman was a Dutch engineer, who invented the idea of 'shared space' by a principle he named the 'naked street' in the 1980s. He believed that the best way to improve road safety was to abolish roadside markings and warnings. His idea was to create a 'psychological traffic calming measure' by creating the need for motorists and pedestrians to negotiate the use of the road with one another. Monderman's concept of the 'naked street' builds on the idea that a natural interaction between the driver and the pedestrian would create a more civilized environment than that achieved by segregating cars and people.'

    • Word count: 1468
  10. Marx's Labour Theory of Value and the Modern World

    In order to achieve this communist society it would mean that the Bourgeois would have to either willingly give up their power and wealth, or have it stripped from them by forceful means. Modern Bourgeoisie society is the pinnacle of alienation, due to the workers loss of control over his own labour and his subordination to the capitalist. Social alienation cannot be cured through intellectual enlightenment. In order to abolish this extreme social segregation, the remedy would be a socialist revolution (Callinicos, 2007:82).

    • Word count: 2862
  11. Evaluate the claim that Britishness is a matter of shared values, ideas or ways of life.

    (cited in Clarke, 2009, p.210) It goes on to explain that Scottish & Welsh will often state they have British (or UK) citizenship, but Scottish or Welsh nationality. Within Northern Ireland, whether they define themselves as British, Irish or both depends on their political and cultural allegiances. Those born in England, conversely, are more common to state British as their nationality and citizenship. However the study conducted by Vron Ware, funded by the British Council views Britishness differently, stating 'Britain is a composite nation, a patchwork of anomalies, mistakes and inconsistencies.'

    • Word count: 1484
  12. What can you say about the identities of the people of Stratford, based on the tables provided? Table 1 provides us with the percentages of people in ethnic groups within Stratford,

    Table 3 shows the qualifications of all people aged 16 to 74 (Open University, 2011). The percentage of people with no qualifications in Stratford (28.3%) is almost identical to England and Wales (28.7%). It can be seen that there are fewer people with Level 1 and 2 qualifications in Stratford than in England and Wales, but Levels 3, 4/5 have a higher percentage than England and Wales. This could indicate higher education is more accessible in Stratford, or that there are increased job opportunities for higher educated or qualified professionals who move into the area.

    • Word count: 1745
  13. How and why does Weber try to seek a connection between the Spirit of Capitalism and the Protestant Ethic?

    My last point will be to explain why Weber was so interested in establishing such a relation between the two factors and we will see that this eagerness is to be found in the socio-economic situation of Germany at the time of writing. The notion of "ideal-types" in understanding the work of Weber is crucial. These sociological tools were created in order to simplify the reality of the world and of certain phenomenon to make explanations a bit easier. In his essay The Protestant Ethic Debate, Larry Ray defines these "ideal types" as being "one-sided : they accentuate an aspect of social life that is relevant to the research at hand.

    • Word count: 1715
  14. Gypsies and Irish Travellers and Local Planning Obstacles. The aim of our presentation is to provide an overview of some of the problems faced by Irish travellers and Gypsies when they are applying for planning permission within the United Kingdom. We wi

    The second group identified by Shelter is Irish Travellers. Irish Travellers are a nomadic Irish ethnic group with a separate identity, culture, language and history. There are many Irish Travellers resident in Britain for all or part of the year. The third group according to Shelter are 'Scottish Travellers' who like Irish Travellers have musical traditions, language and other histories that date back at least to the twelfth century. The Roma, are a people who moved to Britain from Central and Eastern Europe (of which Britain's Romany Gypsies are members).

    • Word count: 1591
  15. Middle Class Contraction. The growing gap between rich and poor, especially in economies of the West, is creating uncertainty about the future of the middle class.

    On the other hand, the increasing wealth in developing countries, will create a new, less experienced middle class. The middle class may be reduced in a way a lot different from ways in the past. In recent years there is too much talking for the reduction of the middle class, meaning its economic descent. While the middle class in Europe (statistically) actually sinks into decline, another part of it, smaller but very important, improves its position dramatically. Those two parts get a completely different dynamic so they get different characteristics as well and can no more coexist.

    • Word count: 660
  16. The current protest in Egypt. The populations view on the current situation is that since the army took power in Hosni Mubaraks place, nothing has changed for the better.

    The population is also resentful on the fact that the current army regim is imposing a regim of tyranny. Since taking power the council has overseen the trial of 7000 people in closed military trials, including bloggers, journalists and protesters. Those trials were unjust and closed to public opinion, many challenging the regim have been ruthlessly tortured or killed. Analyzing On the international scene The United States called for restraint on all sides and urged Egypt to proceed with elections despite the violence.

    • Word count: 972
  17. World City Aspirations & Urban Spatial Politics: The Case of Dubai

    First, there will be an overview of how Dubai's particular development trajectory facilitated its dependency upon transnational labour, followed by a brief discussion of where Dubai sits within the global city paradigm. The essay will then proceed to apply Saskia Sassen's (1991) claims about global city formation to Dubai's model of urban development so as to critically assess the extent to which inequalities between expatriates are being (re)embedded in the spatial order. Before discussing whether Dubai's construction of mega-projects spatially reproduces inequalities, the relationship between the city's developmental trajectory and the polarization of its labour force requires further clarification.

    • Word count: 3320
  18. Asset Based Welfare and the Enabling State. This essay intends to examine the utility of asset-based arrangements of welfare, in which governments encourage home ownership to offset the rising costs of social insurance. That this practise is indicative o

    This was confirmed by the fact that OECED countries with high levels of home ownership tended to spend less on pensions (Fahey et. al., p.160). However, the notion of a trade off or the substitution effect of home ownership as an alternative social insurance mechanism is quite controversial in social policy field. Not only are there concerns about capacity of housing wealth to provide equivalent coverage to the public pension (Esping-Andersen 1996, p.26), but some analysts suggest that housing is unlikely to become a robust or long term cornerstone of the welfare state because of the way its market value remains contingent upon the uncertainties of consumer and macro-economic behaviour (Malpass 2008, p.17)(Fahey et al.

    • Word count: 4085
  19. J.S. Mills and Wollstonecraft's concerning rights on women

    For Wollstonecraft's publication, it was dedicated to Talleyrand (- minister of education in France) that women deserve equal education as to what men receive but also a response to Rousseau whose view was of a traditionalist one that women are inferior to men (Hoffman and graham, 2006, p174). To start with, we can draw similarities over the two theorists on their views on education. Mary Wollstonecraft's main argument is that women must be given knowledge and education so that they can make rational choices (Bryson.

    • Word count: 1818
  20. Free essay

    In what ways do definitions of poverty affect conclusions about the extent of poverty in society?

    Rowntree worked out an allowance for a basic diet, clothing, rent, family size; this was called his poverty line. Below is his description of what merely physical efficiently meant: Basically a family living upon the scale allowed for in this estimate must never spend a penny on railway fare or omnibus and walk every. They must not even buy a newspaper or treat themselves or even spent money on stamps to write to absent children and on anything which costs money. They cannot save, join sick club, Trade Union, because they cannot pay the necessary subscriptions. The children must have no pocket money for treats as too the father and mother for tobacco and beer, cloths ect.

    • Word count: 2191
  21. The Public Sphere in Singapore

    The success of the Asian developmental states has been attributed to two key factors (Birch, Schirato & Srivastava, 2001: 87). Firstly, the dominance of a single political party has resulted in what has been perceived to be an authoritarian, or at most, a restrictive form of democracy. The second factor was the emphasis on communitarian values and strategies to resolve ethnic conflicts which were prevalent in most of the post-colonial states. Hence, the ability to control political power and the dissemination of ideas within the state was crucial to efficient governance.

    • Word count: 3928
  22. Nationalization in Britain

    The first half of twentieth century saw increased private role in the economy and the government was delineating the role of administration from the control of the economy. Throughout the first and the Second World War, Britain had shown exemplary desire to let the private sector have its own way in the economy (Milward, 1970). However, the Second World War was a turning point for the country economy. In course of the war, British economy had lost a huge amount of its wealth.

    • Word count: 2291
  23. Political Economy

    as means of transferring advance technology, thereby contributing to economic growth. Also in the area of human capital, this essay will examine the statistics of skilled workers in host countries to establish productivity growth rate. In conclusion, this essay will demonstrate that MNCs through FDI on the whole, has a positive impact on the economies of the countries in the global south. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is referred to an investment established to obtain lasting interest in enterprises operating in the host country, usually outside of the economy of the investor.

    • Word count: 2196
  24. Asian Americans in America

    Asian nor American, but Asian American...they bring together previously ineffective struggles against the oppression of Asian communities into a coherent pan-Asian movement for social change" (Wei, 1). In accordance with that, it wasn't until the 1960s and 1970s that diverse communities with different histories began to consciously unite as "Asian Americans." The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s did a tremendous job in downright exposing the persistent problem of r****m in American society and raised questions about exactly how democratic the nation's system really was.

    • Word count: 920
  25. Stereotyping in U.S.

    This is done by people on a daily basis and is not by any definition negative. Stereotypes on the other hand, according to Hall, takes a toll and "reduces people into a few simple, essential characteristic, which are represented as fixed by nature" (Hall, 257). Covered in lecture, the Asian stereotype has over the years manifested itself through the blend of the media, radio, movies, news and false impressions of the culture's history. These misconceptions have come wrongly from the idea that knowing a person of any particular race can be done by merely referring to a number of certain traits.

    • Word count: 926

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Discuss the relation between consumerism and poverty.

    "The relation between consumerism and poverty has many different aspects but at the core of all the arguments is the view that consumerism, although often ignored, is one of the major causes of poverty around the world. Poverty is a serious global problem and as the recent Ethiopia Food Crisis shows threatens the live of millions. The levels of consumption undertaken by the world's elite must be confronted if future crisis's of this kind are to be avoided and poverty overcome."

  • Assess why it is argued that we live in a risk society as well as a regulatory state.

    "Conclusion In concluding I reaffirm the view that we do exist in a 'risk society' as well as a 'regulatory state', not so much for the number of risks with which we must deal with but largely as a result of how this exposure has come to define how we perceive and prepare for risk. The two notions 'risk society' and 'regulatory state' are mutually reinforcing given that risk and safety are the primary propellers for the regulatory state. It is as a result of the acceptability of a risk society that has given rise to a regulatory state aimed at creating risk management systems for dealing with and preventing that which can be prevented. Humans are constantly preparing for potential hazards because of their susceptibility to such risks, hence the reason for the number of insurance companies and other institutions created to ward off the adverse effects of the 'risk society'."

  • Discuss the main influences in the development of social policy before 1945 with reference to Poor Law reform.

    "Conclusion There have been so many actions to tackle the poverty but the commissioners did not realise the poor law itself was the cause of poverty. As it was stated on the first paragraph of this essay that social policy is "shaped by attitudes and institutions formed under very different conditions in the past". Therefore it can be said that in the past the Political, Economical, Social and Technological factors were the main influential contributing factors that forced the Liberal government to introduce reforms. There have been many studies that enlightened ideas such as Seebohm Rowntree's which found out that in 1901 nearly 1/3 of the population did not have the minimum to live on some time during their life time. The public was vulnerable to decisions that had been implemented by the government. When Britain went to 'The Boer War' it was found that shockingly 2/3 of the men that applied to the army were unfit. The poor law did affect the citizens of UK which had implications in many areas. One of the reasons that Liberal government had started to concentrate more on reform was that the Labour party was growing stronger by attracting working class voters of its determination for welfare reform."

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