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University Degree: Religion in Society

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  • Peer Reviewed essays 1
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  1. Peer reviewed

    Discuss Kohlberg's theory of Moral Development, use psychological evidence and refer to at least one other theory in your answer.

    5 star(s)

    He gave them a moral dilemma and questions designed by Heinz. Heinz's story stated that a man's wife was suffering from a rare illness, her only chance of survival was this one particular type of drug that the man could not afford and the chemist would not let him have it cheaper or let him pay for it in instalments. The questions were on whether the man should steal the drug for his wife, whether the man should steal it if it was for a stranger, is it against the law to steal it and does that make it morally wrong.

    • Word count: 1057
  2. Critically examine the statistical evidence that supports the Secularisation thesis.

    With industrialisation people now have more free time, this allows them to perhaps read more about generally allowing them to start questioning things taken for granted by earlier generations. Since the rise of science, it has been implied that religion may be in a permanent decline as society is becoming more and more less influenced by religious ideas and practices. Two of the main believers of the secularisation thesis were Bryan Wilson and Peter Berger. Bryan Wilson states secularisation is "a social process whereby religious institutions, thinking, and consciousness are losing their social significance."

    • Word count: 2235
  3. Free essay

    Is the state of Israel a model for democracy in the Middle East?

    The term implies that the region is for some reason more prone to such problems than other parts of the world. There are, however, a number of pro-democracy movements in the Middle East. For example, the Islamic Democratic Current is a political group that openly calls for democratic reform in Syria; Kifaya, which means 'enough' is has become Egypt's main pro-democracy group and spearheads demonstrations against the government; Iran's Green Movement has recently mobilised over three million people protesting against the re-election of President Ahmadinejad and called upon the American President Obama to side with them against the regime (Allen, 2009).

    • Word count: 2814
  4. In modern Western societies, God is dead. Is this correct?

    than 'God has died' (which would suggest some sort of event of dying). Those two simple facts would suggest that what he tries to show, is that it is rather the society that is important here than a God himself. Generally speaking, he points out that the modern society is no longer something that the idea of God or his morality could survive in. That is the point where sociologists' meaning of this phrase has its roots in. They ask whether our society is still religious in the traditional sense or maybe there is something new going on in area of our beliefs.

    • Word count: 1374
  5. Assess the future relevance of liberal Protestant theological traditions in the context of World Christianity.

    Many denominations who would not identify with liberal protestant theology cultivate this image of God, either as a result of, or at least placing their adherents in a position to appreciate and be influenced by, liberal protestant theology. Indeed, writing more than a century ago, Henry Drummond wrote that "The idea of an immanent God, which is the God of evolution, is infinitely grander than the occasional wonder-worker who is the God of an old theology."4 While this attitude contributed to opening liberal Protestantism to attacks as a new religion, distinct from Christianity, based upon Naturalism, the ease with which such a position bridged the gap between the natural and the supernatural is vital to modern Christianity.

    • Word count: 3138
  6. Free essay

    Elucidate the methods by which Christendom became World Christianity

    The second is that it was a form of cultural hegemony. Christendom did contain non-Christians. This will become pertinent when discussing modern ideas of Christendom. The concept of Christendom still exists today (see conclusion). The Christendom model of conceptualizing the international scope of the Christian faith is rooted in geopolitical and economic power. They trace this practice back to the seventeenth-century principle of cuius regio, eius religio, literally, "whose the region, his the religion."5 Henry VIII, making himself the first absoloute monarch, freeing himself of Rome's influence is a singular example of this.

    • Word count: 3462
  7. Religion and Systems in Australia

    These statistics are explained in the article by Michael Gilchrist which states that '...only 64 percent of those under 15 at the time of the 1996 Census who were identified as Catholic (presumably by their parents) still described themselves as Catholic ten years later. And most of these are graduates of the Catholic education system'2. The reason for increases in secularism can therefore be seen as a product of a background of gradual trans-national changes in social values and attitudes of modern society; highlighted by the most significant growth being 'among the younger age categories'3 who are more likely to embrace alternatives to traditional, institutional religion (which may perhaps be seen as constricting to these new values and attitudes).

    • Word count: 1586
  8. 1st Amendment: Freedom of religion The freedom of religion has been a source for a lot of controversy also while being the foundation of our country, which is why I have chosen this topic for discussion.

    Either way, the freedom of religion is used to avoid persecution from the government. The interpretation of the amendment has drastically changed over the course of history. In the beginning, the freedom of religion had a biased look at "freedom" and the government would shun some practices and stick to formal ideas of religion. Today, the amendment has a more strict sense of "freedom" because of all the religions that are available. In my opinion, there should be some reform because there are many people who try to get away with things because of their "faith" that they truly don't practice (I.E: the church of euthanasia, where the four pillars of the church are suicide, abortion, cannibalism, and sodomy.

    • Word count: 744
  9. The reading suggests that modern nation building in the Muslim world demonstrates three patterns: Secular, Muslim and Islamic. Discuss example of each of the above patterns in the Muslim world and explain what constitutes them as Secular, Muslim or Islami

    To understand this phenomenon requires at the outset that certain presuppositions can be recognized. First is the Secularism, which takes its roots from modern western seculars that has a tendency to separate religion from everyday life. Second is the religio-politics aspect that defines the institutions as religious or Islamic not secular. Third is the Muslim Identity as a process of Normalization.1 The secularists are Western- oriented intellectuals and modernists who rely on a process of modernization. They restrict religion to private life and follows the western pattern for social and political system.

    • Word count: 542
  10. Ethics in islam.For all Muslims, unlike Christianity the concept of Din and Duniya are inextricably linked. In fact the Sharia or the Islamic law is first and foremost code of ethics that lays the foundation of the Islamic society.

    or what we should do to maximize social happiness (teleology).3 In the merging of the secular(Duniya) and the sacred (Din) ethics, Muslims adhere to the Qur'anic ethics as not only primary models but also a foundation for everyday human life that is prominent by their grounding in the histories, rights and rituals, practices and texts. The live examples from the life of the Prophet himself by which he encouraged and exemplified the community.

    • Word count: 592
  11. Do Hindus believe in one God and one goal in life

    or Parameshwara (the supreme Lord). In the Hindu scriptures (the four Vedas or the Baghavada Gita) celestial entities are referred as Devas, "the shining ones", which translates into "Gods". Inspired sages known as rishis heard the verses of the Veda (truth) directly from the Gods. Each of these religious poems usually addresses one of the Vedic Gods or Goddesses each of whom represents natural forces such as the sun, the moon, fire, water, the heavens, the earth, the dawn and the wind. The Gods more often mentioned, each receiving more then 200 hymns are Agni (fire)

    • Word count: 1501
  12. What are the characteristics of Buddhism in Australia?

    conception that the method of Buddhist practice, whether privately practiced, publically or socially may determine the capability for data to be empirically collected. After over 2500 years of living ancient tradition, Buddhism still remains a tradition with the capability of bestowing peace, happiness and fulfilment amongst those who practice it sincerely (Landlaw & Bodian, 2003, p.14). Buddhism offers a method of salvation through the elimination of suffering by human beings rather than through worship of a god, deity or sentient being (Morris, 2006, p.44).

    • Word count: 2708
  13. Is the influence of religion in western society declining? Can we reasonably measure its decline? If it is declining, what is replacing it?

    In the 1960s and 70s, the idea of secularisation was spreading in Australia (Bouma, 1992 p. 164). "In current usage, the term secularisation has become synonymous with religious decline - decline in church attendance, decline in religious influence and decline in personal faith" (Bouma, 1992 p. 160). Churches are empty, the numbers of candidates for the priesthood decrease, and the strong social role religion once had seems to be lost (Bouma, 1992 p. 162). A decline in religious orientation can also be observed on the individual level, alone with a weakening of belief and a lessening of religious practice (Bouma, 1992 p.

    • Word count: 1849
  14. r****m in britain GB

    That is that one may be able to rise up in his job sector to a certain level where it is not possible to move up higher the same way white colleges or the majority are able to do so. A recent example of this would be Shabir Hussein's case were one may argue that he had gone through a glass ceiling situation that is that he feels that his boss is preventing him from the top post. This is due to his skin colour as his face did not fit, and "it did not fit because it was not white".

    • Word count: 2247
  15. How much and in what ways has 9/11 influenced public perceptions and the self perceptions of Muslim communities in Western Europe and the United States?

    Islamic law forbids its followers to declare war on countries who allow them to freely practice their religion and yet these fundamentalists had created fear in the very communities to which they professed to be allied. The Muslim communities have certainly felt 'under pressure' (Islam in the West, 2007, p234) since 9/11. However, many people were also prompted to find out more about Islam so as to understand the significance of the religion in their society and this can only lead to a deeper understanding of the issues.

    • Word count: 2526
  16. Church of Women by Dorothy Hodgson

    Hodgson draws on interviews with individual women and discussions with church officials to answer these questions. First, Maasai women have always had a strong spirituality, and the church provided them with an outlet for its expression. Hodgson notes that historically, Maasai women have had significant powers in the religious and/ or spiritual domain. They are believed to be more spiritual than men, which is manifest in their constant prayers. They have a special relationship with Eng'ai, the most important Maasai deity, who, like Maasai women, is responsible for creating and supporting life. Through their relationship with Eng'ai, women protect and ensure the prosperity of their families and herds and serve as the primary guardians of the Maasai moral order.

    • Word count: 1517
  17. Jupiter Hammon

    Throughout the text of the address, Hammon seems to be calling the slaves to accept slavery, serve their masters without debate, be honest to their masters, do away with their profaneness, and pursue literacy with a great fervency that they may be able to read the Bible every chance they have. But, the charge he is making to his audience is filled with criticism of the institution of slavery and a cry for gradual emancipation, masked behind religious terminology and ideals.

    • Word count: 955
  18. En qu se basan las creencias espirituales?

    ende muchas creencias y para que estas perduren y sean olvidadas, necesitan de alg�n tipo de respaldo en el cual puedan apoyarse y justificarse. Las bases de las creencias muchas veces pueden tener or�genes desde mi punto de vista irracional por su tendencia espiritual, es decir que se originan de explicaciones m�ticas, suposiciones, relatos, no necesariamente como una forma de explicar como se supone que trabajaba el mito en la antigua Grecia, sino como formas de expresar, pero al fin y al cabo sin soporte ya que no tienen raz�n de ser ni comprobaci�n practica, y tal vez nunca de

    • Word count: 1544
  19. With reference to two religions discussed in the From Sacred Text to Internet(TM) explore the ways in which technological innovations have affected representations of religion.

    There are other religions that believe in a ubiquitous uncongenial certainty that the individual must achieve absolute self-understanding through an awareness of dissecting one's self. There are also those religions that bring together characteristics from both forms. It is important to be aware of the supercilious(???) agenda of traditional religions and their propensity to declare themselves the 'ultimate' religion. This propensity plays an important role in communicating what they represent, their philosophy and how they are presented. Presentation Presentation is how an ideology, concept or theory is presented to others, either individually or collectively, on a local or global scale.

    • Word count: 2092
  20. According to secularization theory what should happen to religion as society undergoes modernization?

    in cultural experiences at all levels - a push, whether ill-defined or conscious, toward some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life. When more or less distinct patterns of behaviour are built around this depth dimension in a culture, this structure constitutes religion in its historically recognizable form. Religion is the organization of life around the depth dimensions of experience - varied in form, completeness, and clarity in accordance with the environing culture.'

    • Word count: 1996
  21. Quebec imigration analysis

    Nous terminerons notre tour d'horizon de la probl�matique avec le nouveau projet de loi propos� par la Parti Qu�b�cois. 1. L'immigration au Qu�bec 1.1 Historique de l'immigration au Qu�bec Depuis les d�buts de la colonisation, le Canada a continuellement ouvert ses portes aux nombreux immigrants. Les fluctuations migratoires, quant � elles, ont subi de constants changements au fil des ans. Suite aux premi�res vagues migratoires (provenant essentiellement d'Europe) qu'a connues le Qu�bec au courant du XIXe si�cle et au tournant du XXe si�cle, un nouveau mouvement vers l'Am�rique s'est engendr� apr�s la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

    • Word count: 4574
  22. Religion and Sports Do Not Mix. Discuss.

    This paper will hereafter show firstly, the relationship between religion and sports and then, with reference to Christianity and Islam, how religion and sports come together. Parallels can be drawn between religion and sports because they are able to achieve a similar feat for society and also, because they share certain characteristics. Adopting a sociological and functionalist view, this paper now poses two questions in order to show how religion and sports achieve a similar feat for society-What role does sport have in a society and what can sports do for the followers of a particular team or club?

    • Word count: 2236
  23. How has the image of the Church of England as the 'Tory Party at Prayer' been challenged since the 1980s?

    There had been stirrings against the consensus in the Conservative party since the 1960s, when Enoch Powell attempted to revive a more laissez-faire approach to economic policy, arguing that 'the free market is... essential for a free society'5. The influence of economic and political thinkers such as Hayek and Friedman6, who advocated libertarianism and free market economics, and groups such as the Adam Smith Institute, which has strong ties to several Conservative MPs, and worked to promote privatisation7, were strongly felt throughout the 1970s.

    • Word count: 2422
  24. Presentation on ISKCON

    * Many different offshoots or denominations within Hinduism * E.g. ascetic, popular, Vedic and devotional traditions * Bhakti strain of philosophy ISKCON * Home worship * Active participants * Ascetic lifestyle * The Bhagavata Purana, a developmental discussion of bhaktiyoga. * ISKCON's philosophies are taken from Hinduism but the movement is somewhat detached from the Hindu faith. Hindu Background / Guru structure * The Hare Krishna mantra or the Maha Mantra often heard chanted originates from Kali Santarana Upanishad, a Vaishnava scripture * Succession of Gurus - ISKON's leader Prabhupada also follows a line of succession, spiritually connected directly to

    • Word count: 2538
  25. With reference to at least two NRMs you have visited, examine the ways in which they secure allegiance from their followers.

    Social taboos are held very srtictly by the Jehovah's Witnesses but the pro active approach to discipline is in marked contrast to the ISCKON religion who also have social taboos that contrast with wider society. The ISCKON approach to discipline from the beggining of the religions move to the west has been of tolerence and accomodation, in line the Wallis typology the ISCKON religion would be a world accomodating religion. ISCKON members where described to us as being encouraged to follow the rules of the organisation but that no formal mechanism exists by which a member can be expelled.

    • Word count: 1188

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Examine the definition of moral panic and then go on to discuss an example in order to demonstrate its cycle and characteristics.

    "In conclusion, moral panics are not a new phenomenon; they tend to arise in periods of social upheaval and change. The path of a panic can take one of two directions; it can quickly die down and is more or less forgotten to a great degree or can have more serious and lasting implications such as new legislation and changes in social policy. Society plays their part, encouraged by the press - people who are in the midst of a moral panic clamour for any available news and basically believe anything they are told. Moral panics feed off guilt that is spread by contagion to make people feel more comfortable by blaming another group for their deviances."

  • Evaluate Durkheim's claim that interpersonal forces control human behaviour. Illustrate your answer with reference to either his study of suicide or religion.

    "Durkheim's theory has some advantages over other theories on the role of interpersonal forces controlling human behaviour, as Suicide was the first systematic application of the sociological method to a social phenomenon. While attacked by interpretists for the unreliability of official statistics on suicide, few have substantially attacked his theoretical conclusions. Hence, Durkheim's work provides a valuable tool to the better understanding of the mechanisms, both personal and societal, behind human behaviour."

  • Assess the future relevance of liberal Protestant theological traditions in the context of World Christianity.

    "In conclusion, liberal Protestantism has probably reached the extent of its influence in the West as discrete denomination. It is beset by neo-orthodox critics and floundering under its automatic connection to liberal politics. However, many of its beliefs remain attractive to modern Christians and have been absorbed into other denominations of Christianity. As the politics and socioeconomic conditions in Africa and Asia continue to improve, it is possible, even likely that the social/cultural factor examined previously will make liberal Christianity in some form more attractive in these areas. To answer the title question, the future relevance of liberal Christianity will be significant if subtle, if it manages to remake itself into a cohesive theological entity and divide itself from politics. Otherwise it will play an increasingly insignificant role on the world stage. Bibliogaphy Sanneh, Lamin., Whose religion is Christianity?: the gospel beyond the West (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, September 2003) page 22. McGrath, Alistair., Christian Theology (Blackwell Publishing 2007) Page 82"

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