• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

With reference to gender, discuss the possible relationship between offending, victimisation and treatment within the criminal justice process.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐With reference to gender, discuss the possible relationship between offending, victimisation and treatment within the criminal justice process. Gender and crime have a strong relationship when comes to offending, victimisation, and treatment within the criminal justice process. ?Is crime MALE? Crime is overwhelmingly committed by men, against other men, policed by men, judged by men, imprisoned by men, studied by men?[1]. This raises the question as to where women come into it; females are less involved in offending than males are. ?The proportion of women with a conviction is lower at all ages than that for males.? This essay will go on to explain differences in gender when it comes down to offending, victimisation and treatment within the criminal justice process. ?Do men and women offend for similar reasons? Male and females tend to give different reasons when explaining their offending. Drug addiction is a main part in all offending? There are quite a few theories concerning gender and crime particularly with the female side of things: There is not a single feminist theory of crime. Feminism draws from other theories (especially conflict theory) to describe the way females are affected by the criminal justice system (both women?s experiences as offenders and victims). The reason that we refer to feminist perspectives (and not feminist theory) is that there are many different versions of feminism. ...read more.

Middle

Women?s needs of course differ from those of men?s: Heidensohn (1996) argues that there were two likely explanations for the failure to do more than adapt male systems and techniques of confinement and punishment when seeking to address female prisoners: 1. Women were in many respects regarded as incorrigible. Once they had ?fallen? there was considered to be little hope of reformation. 2. They lacked ?champions? ? or at least sufficient champions. Elizabeth Fry, Josephine Butler and others had an important impact, but the more general exclusion of women from public life at this period limited what could be achieved. So, what does the make- up of the female prison population look like? Ethnic minority groups make up approximately 29% of the female population compared with 22% of the male prison population. Over 75% of female prisoners are single (including those who are separated, widowed or divorced), just over 25% were living as lone parents prior to imprisonment (compared with 3% of adult males) and, though estimates vary, at least 66% of young female offenders are mothers (Niven and Olagundoye, 2002). A report from the Chief Inspector of Prisons in 1997 suggested that at least 20% of female prisoners have children and 39% of young female prisoners had been in the care of a local authority at some stage in their childhood, and nearly 50% reported having suffered some form of abuse (a third reported sexual abuse, the remainder, physical abuse) ...read more.

Conclusion

Women don?t have much involvement in violent crimes whereas men do. If a woman does not pose a risk to the public then she should be supported to prevent her from committing a crime again. Since there are not many women offenders as a result there are not many women prisons which would mean that women would have to depart further from their families which would make visiting much harder. This would also affect any children the woman might have as it means the child is also receiving some sort of punishment as it is away from its mother. It could be said that women should only go to prison for serious offences. To conclude, offending occurs most in men as most women do not tend to commit crime. Women who do commit crimes are either committing a minor offence or are deviating from the traditional view of a woman. Women who have a past of violence or sexual assault could be classified as victims as well as offenders. The whole process in the criminal justice system is different for men and women. There is an issue with equality when it comes to the criminal justice system; men are treated more harshly than women are, through each stage of the criminal justice system for many reasons such as emotional needs and the character of a woman to that compared to a man. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Criminology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Criminology essays

  1. Outline and critically discuss the way in which your studies have developed your understanding ...

    This quote affirmed my beliefs (Becker, 1963) 'Deviance is not a quality of the act a person commits but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an 'offender'.

  2. Examine the contribution of feminism to contemporary criminology

    But this can be challenged, as it is clear that women are treated differently and punished differently. Maguire, Morgan and Reiner (2002:512) talk of the research done into women's prisons in UK in the 80s and 90s about the distress and conditions that men and women felt but mainly for women.

  1. Literature Review - Male Rape.

    initially define their experiences as rape, particular of their relationship had included consensual sex in the past or if the victim had agreed to some level of sexual intimacy at the time of assault. (Allen 2002) Allen (2002) produced a very in depth investigation into the effects that rape has

  2. Term paper of criminology

    Those whose lives are entangled with drug misdemeanours should be informed that the abuse of drugs is not an indication of a life-long career as a criminal, but rather as a temporary step backwards from the correct path. Being in a dance group may also help teenagers like Yu.

  1. Feminism and Criminology

    Liberal critiques such as Walklate scrutinise work of otto pollak arguing his study of women and crime was discriminating and was biased towards chivalry' which made the study under documented of female criminality.

  2. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of youth justice policies in England and Wales since ...

    that all must adhere to as it is in the legislation to follow the duty and eliminates any confusion that might have existed, and another strength is to support these by the task force which comprises of professionals and people in the field that can offer the best advice.

  1. Critically analyse the extent to which the interests of the female victim have been ...

    The House of Lords ruled that if a man honestly believed that a woman consented, regardless of how unreasonable this belief was, he could not be found guilty of rape. Feminist activist groups campaigned for many years that the mistaken belief defence should be based on some test of reasonableness or that the mistaken belief clause should be abolished altogether.

  2. Sexual Offences and Offending Behaviour. Critically compare and contrast the public notification/disclosure programmes currently ...

    states , like Connecticut, provide very little information whilst others, like Utah, provide very detailed information with an interactive map where the public can track offenders (Thomas, 2010, p.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work