Health And Social Care A01 Unit 2 Communication
There are many different ways in which you communicate with somone, these include, oral communication, written communicaion, computerised communication, and communication for people with special needs for example, braile, sign language and makaton.
Oral communication is communication by the word of mouth for example having a conversation with someone requires the development of skills and social coordination meaning to show an interest, being able to interest the person you are having a conversation with and having the ability to start and end conversations.
Argyle 1983 devised a model called the, “Sender and Reciever Model.” This model encodes oral messages by the sender and then decodes by the reciever:
Sender Encodes Message Decodes Reciever
Thompson 1986 argued that communication is important for two reasons such as, enabling people to share information and enabling to have relationships with people as Thompson claimed that, “relationship is the communcation.”
Oral communication helps with everyday tasks such as,
- Problem solving
- Greeting people
- Asking for information
- Providing support
- Explaining issues and procedures
- Exchanging ideas or Learning ideas
Oral communication is central in being able to bond and to have relationships with people, health care workers have to have highly developed social skills, as they are dealing with people every day and will need to be able to cope in a care setting as there will be a wide range of emotional needs.
Written communication is central to somone working within a care setting, as in care work there are always writen records to support any treatment or decision authrozied by the service user as these could be proven useful at a later date. The rules of governing writing are different compared to oral communication. In a health care setting accuracy and darity is exteremly important, as many people know, when having a conversation with someone then repeating to someone else some of the details change making the information no longer useful so writting the information down make the records more pernament and more accurate.
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Some example of written communication/documents are,
- Staff rotas showing times of work and holiday.
- Medical records, are useful if you move to a different doctors surgery, or go to hospital as it helps with the diagnosis as they have your medical history.
- School reports showing your learning and your achievements
- Statements recording incidents which have happened, example someone falling over in the work place has to be recorded down in the works place accident book.
When writing information down you check that the person you are interviewing or if writting in the accident book you have to check that the all of the information is right by checking with the person you are talking to.
Always check the spelling of any names and repeat telephone numbers back to check they are correct and a use a type of form which have headings to help check that you are writing the correct information in the correct place on the form this also helps make the information more accurate.
If the information is recorded wrong it could result in the following problems,
- Not able to follow up the patients queries
- A delay in meeting the needs of the patients
- Not being able to make the right decision due to the information recorded
- Makes the doctors job harder as unable to make a proper diagnosis
- Unable to deliver an organised service
- Missing meetings and appointments
Computerised communication is very important in care work. The information is all recorded in computerised records and is equally important as any other written records. There are always a range of security measures care workers have to take to make sure all the computerised records are kept confidential and are not lost or altered.
With the computerised records it is important to keep a back up copy just in case the system goes down, use password and username systems so care workers can access records, find out what the policy of printing the records is as this prevents the hard copies getting lost or being seen, know the policy of who is in charge of changing or updating records and print out faxed documents in an area so unauthorized staff do not have access to the confidential documents.
There are different types of communication for people with special needs such as the blind and the deaf. The main language for the deaf is the british sign language and if your blind you can be registered to use Braile in order to read information.
British Sign Language is the main sign language used among the unknown number of deaf people in the United Kingdom. The language makes use of space and involves movement of the body, head, and face. People who have deaf relatives make use of the British Sign Language.
The British Deaf Association started up in 1980 and has been campaigning for the rights of deaf people. British Deaf Association is campaigning for British Sign Language to be used and educated making it possible for the deaf to access services and information and to help them become more part of the society.
Sign language is important for care workers to know as by using sign language to communicate to them would make them feel more comfortable compared to writing to them on a piece of paper. By the care worker using sign language to communicate to the service user it will make them feel more comfortable in the health care setting as you will start to build relationships with the service user as this is important in the health care setting as you are meeting the service user needs.
Braille was devised by Louis Braille in the 1820’s a blind man himself has now become widely known as the main form of writing, reading and the main language for the blind.
Braille is, is made up of six dot positions, arranged in a rectangle containing two columns of three dots, a dot may be raised at any of the six positions.
Braille provides the system, of use of the human touch to read the information in Braille but now a days most care settings have computer software to translate information for the blind in Braille making them able to access the information.
Being able to communicate with other people has been proven difficult with some people so another way of communication to help is Makaton.
This was developed in the 1970’s to help people with disabilities and people who have difficulty in communicating.
Makaton uses speech and gesture, facial expression, eye contact and body language. Makaton uses speech together with a sign or gesture or a symbol for example:
Signs and symbols are easier to learn and understand where as trying to learn to speak. Many people use signs or gestures before they speak for example when saying goodbye or hello.
Makaton help with people who have difficulties with speaking and understanding others, also Makaton helps develop communication skills.
If a person has to rely on speech development, vital skills such as eye contact, making choices or sharing information will not develop properly.
People who do have difficult understanding and speaking become frustarted quite easily, this is when they start to communicate through behaviours such as shouting or hurting themselves, by people using makaton it is helping them communicate in a more acceptable way.
If makaton is required in a health care setting care workers have to remember to use it throughtout the day, when speaking use symbols and encourage the service user to speak or even get them to point to the neccessary symbol whilst the care worker is speaking.
Taking all of the different communications into account when communicating with the servise user be careful how you position yourself as this could create both physical and emotional barriers.
On an emotional level leaning over someone and looking down at them can send a message of power and the feeling that you the care worker are more dominant than the service user.
In a care setting it is important not to look down on the people you are caring for, as it is important that you are at eye level with the service user.
People who have hearing problems use lip reading as this helps them understand what you are saying and being at the same eye level as them enables them again to understand and feel comfortable.
Positioning is very important in group communication. Seating patterns help alot in group communication as it infulences the group and how the group works. In a discussion group, it is important that everyone see’s and hear’s each other.
Usually in a health care setting and all the service user’s are altogether for e.g. some quiet time, or the care worker is informing the residents of something, they are all usually positioned in a circe postion as this suggest that everyone is equal and everyone is expected to communicate with everyone else in the circle.
When in a care setting, the care worker has to be set to belive in the service user’s believes. It is important for the care worker to understand the service user and communicate well as if you do not respect the service user’s rights of confidentiality they would feel threatened by your behaviour, it is also important for you to understand the factors affecting communication such as:
- Positioning when communicating.
- Envoirmental conditions in which you communicate in.
- Special communcation needs such as, makaton, braille and sign language.
Here's what a teacher thought of this essay
This essay discussed communication in care settings. The module/unit requirements were not stated and so general feedback about the essay will be given. Different methods of communication and who might use them were identified and there was some theory included as well which was good. It is worth remembering to reference fully the authors that have been referred to in the text. There was some good work about security of electronic records