Health, Human Development and Ageing

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Six-year-old Brianna has experienced asthma for the first time.  She refused to take medications via a face mask.  Her mother was also distressed after seeing her having trouble breathing.  Discuss how the nurse can assist Brianna and her mother to understand what asthma is and to develop an Asthma management plan for to be used at home and at school by considering the stages that she is at according to Erikson’s and Piaget’s theory.

The medical treatment in the hospital

According to Piaget's theory, Brianna is at preoperational stage, Crisp (2009) “children are egocentric in this period in that they are unable to distinguish their perspective from that of another person”.  She simply thinks that everyone sees the world as she does.  Therefore she believes that when she is having trouble in breathing, other people are also having the same trouble.  That was why she refused the medication treatment via a face mask.  She believed she no need to use the face mask just like other people.  The parent might wear the face mask as well.  Then Brianna might think that everyone needs to wear the face mask not just herself.   She has no asthma treatment before, so it may cause misunderstandings and misinterpretations.  It may cause much anxiety in Brianna.  They may be encouraged to do pretended healthcare procedures on her doll beforehand such as thermometers, blood pressure equipment and play needles.  For example, Brianna can place a face mask over her doll.  It may give her a better understanding about the procedures and help her to cope with her feelings.  Furthermore, play can offer some relaxation.

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Education with child and parent

Brianna and her mother need to understand asthma can be caused by narrowing of the small air passages in the lungs.  It will result in breathlessness.  The attack will be occurred if the child is triggered by one of the followings: colds, excessive exercise, changes in weather, cigarette smoke, dust-mites, pollens and pets.  The most common signs of asthma are coughing usually happens at night, during the early hours of morning, when the weather is cool and during exercise.  Wheeze breathing sounds like whistles.  Asthma can be well controlled with the right medications.  The ...

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