Health promotion. This essay will discuss the definitions of health promotion and empowerment, and how the two are interlinked. I will also be talking about my artefact and which health promotion models have been used to enable the production of my artefa

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                        Empowerment in nursing practice

The purpose of the assignment is to explore the principles of empowerment in nursing practice.  This essay will discuss the definitions of health promotion and empowerment, and how the two are interlinked. I will also be talking about my artefact and which health promotion models have been used to enable the production of my artefact, together with the reason behind my design. The main topic within this essay focuses on testicular cancer awareness because it is widely believed to be on the increase, and psychologically this is a difficult subject to discuss with men; this issue will also be addressed.

My clothing tag booklet is designed to increase testicular cancer awareness, provide information on self examination and stress the importance of early detection. Testicular cancer remains one of the leading cancers in young men ages 15- 35 years (Cancer Research UK 2003).  Since the late 1970s incidence rates have doubled, however there is no evidence to suggest the cause behind this increase. (Orchid Cancer Appeal 2005). It is estimated that 1 in 210 men in the UK will develop this form of cancer by the time they are 50. (Orchid cancer appeal 2005). My artefact will therefore be designed to target young men between the age of 15-35.

Research suggests that a large percentage of men are unaware of the risk of this disease and only 3% regularly check themselves Wardle (1994 p. 338). Webb and Holmes have stated ‘for successful early detection plans need to be implemented, there needs to be more education about self examination and awareness of the disease’.

My concept is for the artefact to be distributed with all major brands of boxer shorts sold in shops, however to promote this artefact it would be distributed in fresher weeks at universities. Cook, R (2000:48) states that this method of distribution is a very beneficial one, as many men are easily embarrassed by this subject and the artefact could help overcome this barrier, as they don’t need to ask the information, it is easily accessible.

Health promotion is used to raise awareness and educate individuals about the necessity to change their lifestyles. The World Health Organisation (1986) defines health promotion “as the health and well being of the whole population rather than a specific disease, and it enables people to take control over their own health to help to improve it,” whilst Naidoo and Willis (2001) focuses on the individual taking more control and becoming more aware of heath issues that are relevant to themselves and their community. The similarities of these health definitions can be seen as providing information to allow the person to make the necessary choices to improve their lives.  Naidoo and Willis inform the reader about educating the individual to make choices whilst the World Health Organisation concentrates on empowering the nation to live a healthier lifestyle.


In 1986 the Ottawa Charter was published. Its aims were to empower people to have more control over all aspects of their lives that affect their welfare, and it consists of five actions (see appendix 1). The main aim of the artefact is to incorporate the principles of empowering people to change their behaviour and attitude toward their health. Health promotions are an important aspect in the health sector; it encourages individuals to make the right choices as long as they have the capacity to do so. Empowerment is an aspect to health promotion which is used to enable people to decide on the appropriate choices to their health once all information is given.

The link between health promotion and empowerment is defined by Nutbeam (1998) as ‘a process of increasing the capacity of individuals to make choices’.

The nurse plays an important role in health promotion. They aim to promote self esteem and autonomy amongst clients, to provide accurate and appropriate information that flows between members of public. Their main roles are to educate the patient and to provide preventative measurement. The Royal College of Nursing (RCN 2003) describes that the purpose of nursing is to ‘promote health, healing, growth and development and prevent disease, injury, illness and disability’.  

Health promotion models are essential to indentify pathways to tackle health issues.  Ewles and Simnett (2000) state that there are five approaches to health promotion (appendix 2)

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Naidoo and Willis (2009) argue that “Each approach has different objectives like to prevent disease, to ensure that people are well informed and able to make health choices. To enable people the skills and confidence to take control of their health and to change policies and environment in order to facilitate healthy choices”

My models for my artefact are based on Tannahill and Ewles and Simnett models.   Tannahill model consists of three overlapping spheres (see appendix 3) and seven sub domains. My artifact will focus on positive health education. This consists of health education aiming at changing ...

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This essay aimed to discuss the link between health promotion and empowerment using a testicular cancer awareness campaign. The work shows a good understanding of the role of health promotion and the issues that practitioners need to be mindful of when preparing capmaigns for men in particular. I felt there could have been a bit more of a discussion regarding empowerment. Why is it important in health promotion and how can it be provided? Be careful not to make assumptions that men have female partners