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University Degree: Healthcare

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  1. Critically assess the efficacy of treatment in changing addictive behaviour

    Self-efficacy (or self-confidence specific to a behaviour) is a self-perception of having skills to perform the specific behaviour. The theory describes behaviour change as a three fold interaction of 'person', 'behaviour' and 'environment' interacting dynamically in a process called 'reciprocal determinism' (Bandura, 1989). The Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour place relatively more emphasis on the concept of behavioural intention. The concept of behavioural intention can be predicted by the persons expectancies regarding the outcomes of a behaviour, attitudes toward the behaviour and normative beliefs the person has with respect to what influential's would do in a specific situation.

    • Word count: 4462
  2. Audit of two week wait for breast cancer in Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust

    with a unilateral firm subareolar mass with or without n****e distortion or associated skin changes * n****e changes - ulceration, skin nodule, skin distortion, n****e eczema, n****e retraction or distortion of recent onset (< 3 months) * Patients of any age with single duct or bloodstained n****e discharge, all women over 50 with n****e discharge. Following the 1999 implementation of the "two week wait" initiative for Breast Cancer, concerns have been expressed on the number of breast cancers which came through the routine referral route as some studies have suggested that almost a third of cancers in a referral population have not come through the rapid referral service.

    • Word count: 752
  3. This essay will critically examine the cultural and behavioural explanations of class differences in relationship to heath issues.

    Cultural explanation suggests that different social classes behave in different distinct ways; the poorer health of the lower social classes, is caused by their behaving in ways that are detrimental to health. Poverty is having more bad things in life and "less of the goods things including health" (Cockerham: 2007 p79) Poverty and health are definitely linked and not only are the 'poor more likely to suffer from ill health and premature death, but poor health and disability are themselves recognised as causes of poverty' (Blackburn 1991, p7).

    • Word count: 2784
  4. Personality Development Paper. Physical therapists and health care providers from other disciplines bring their own cultures (and, unfortunately, biases) to each clinical encounter.

    Culture is one aspect of our experience that makes us similar to some people and different from others. People in all cultures tend to believe that what happens in their culture is always natural and correct. Cross-culture tends to emphasize on Individualistic or Collectivism. Such as the Western culture like the United States are described as individualism and the Eastern culture like China and Japan are described as collectivistic. Individualistic cultures have higher rates than collectivistic cultures of suicide, drug abuse, crime, teenage pregnancy, divorce, child abuse, and mental disorders. Regardless of their cultural background, people need a positive sense of both self and connectedness to others.

    • Word count: 881
  5. The aspect of the Lifespan Development I would like to discuss is Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and how it affects our children. I will also discuss the pros and cons of the medical treatment of ADHD, and how ADHD affects children at sc

    Children who are hyperactive show high levels of physical activity, almost always seeming to be in motion. Children who are impulsive have difficulty curbing their reactions and do not do a good job of thinking before they act. It is known that ADHD occurs in boys many times more than girls. Some children are also being diagnosed without the professional evaluation, which is based on input from different sources. "This disorder is usually diagnosed during elementary school, when they have problems with attention or hyperactivity, and impulsivity which will make it difficult for the child to adjust. Even though they show signs earlier, when observed many overactive toddlers do not go on to develop ADHD" (Santrock, 2006).

    • Word count: 936
  6. The Birth of US Medicine's Golden Child. The first title of HIPAA (Title I) was actually passed into law in 1986 and was called The Internal Revenue Code of 1986. Title 1 protects individuals from heavy financial burden by letting them keep their health

    HIPAA has had a wide scale impact on hospitals and medical care in general. The regulatory laws require individuals to fill out forms and provide proof of identification for every visit. Title II also allows the US Department of Health and Human Services to draft legislation that would increase the efficiency of U.S. Healthcare altogether. Besides HIPAA's overall glossiness, there are and have been some notable issues coming from Health Care providers. The one very important issue being that not enough access is given to healthcare providers in order to have accurate patient information.

    • Word count: 988
  7. Free essay

    Vegetarian vs. Meat-based diets

    A number of studies have determined that people who eat a plant-based diet are more at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, which could result in many neurological problems such as issues with memory loss (Goldstein, p. 221). Although the vitamin B12 exists in eggs and dairy products - which vegetarians do consume - it is not a sufficient amount from just those two sources whereas almost every source of meat contains vitamin B12 (Bender, p. 14). This is mainly why a meat diet is thought of to be more healthful than a vegetarian diet.

    • Word count: 2411
  8. Hypnotherapy and Counselling Skills. In this essay I will look at the origins of hypnosis; brain wave activity; myths that surround hypnosis; some positive aspects and also relate my own personal experiences. I will also consider how hypnosis is portrayed

    In my conclusion I will reflect on how hypnotherapy may be used to help myself with any personal problems. Origins of Hypnosis The art and science of hypnosis is both old and new. Old, because it was used in ancient time and has a pedigree that stretches back to the beginning of mankind's conscious development. New, because only over the past 100 years has it been subject to the full force of scientific scrutiny. This was after the discovery that the unconscious mind, emotions and personal history directly affect a person's state of mental, emotional and physical health. Every culture has used hypnosis in one form or another.

    • Word count: 2146
  9. What Makes a Good Hypnotic Screed

    The conscious is the part that is dealing with experiences that are occurring in the present. This is the mind that you actively and deliberately think with. It is the internal voice that you think of as me. But while the conscious mind has its uses, it is extremely limited in what it can accomplish on its own. That's why our conscious mind is assisted by the power and capacity of our other, larger mind - the unconscious mind. The subconscious mind is the database where we hold all of our learning and experience; it also contains the key to all of our automatic reflexes and safety circuits in our bodily functions.

    • Word count: 2155
  10. Hypnotherapy and Counselling Skills. In this essay I will be looking at the methods and techniques that are used to personalise screeds to suit working with different clients. In doing this I will explore the reasoning behind personalisation and in my con

    the client has invariably got their eyes closed and therefore 55% of our communication ceases to be effective. Also, to make the PMR effective, an exuberant tone or volume may not always be wanted. Thus, we have to deliver our messages and suggestions in words alone. If the best possible results are to be obtained there is a need to work closely with individuals in order to identify their likes and dislikes as well as their personality. In this way we can gain their trust and assist them in reaching a suitable state of hypnosis.

    • Word count: 2207
  11. Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea in the United States. It is also a major cause of gastroenteritis as well. Although gastroenteritis associated with rotavirus is not usually fatal in the United States, it can be extremely fatal in developing c

    In both underdeveloped and developed nations, rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in young children and infants. Almost all children contract rotavirus by the age of 3. Although rotavirus can be contracted at any age, children between the ages of 6-24 months are the most at risk. This is because maternally acquired immune factors typically disappear around 5 months of age. In fact, 75% of hospitalizations involve children under 24 months of age. The most dangerous rotavirus infection is usually an infant's first rotavirus infection. Rotavirus infections in adults have been reported widely as well. Cases of Rotavirus infection have been reported amongst hospital employees, military personnel, cruise ship and travel personnel, and restaurant patrons.

    • Word count: 1145
  12. GM foods

    that have had their genome altered through genetic engineering". For example, a hormone has been shown to boost milk production in cows by up to 25 percent and help normal salmon arrived at mature weight in 10-12 months instead of 3-4 years (David Krogh, 2001, p.297). In brief, genetic modification is a special set of technologies that alter the genetic makeup of such living organisms as animals, plants, or bacteria. 2.2. The impacts of genetically modified foods to agricultural products Firstly, advocates of genetic engineering believe the advances being made with regard to GM foods offer a way to quickly improve crop characteristics.

    • Word count: 1226
  13. The care of a midwife given to a bereaved mother

    It immediately became clear that there is more than just skill and knowledge associated with the profession but deep engagement and effective communication with others. This particular experience had never occurred to me. I was always under the impression that the profession dealt with woman and baby. My Midwife introduced herself and myself to the woman. I remained silent as I could not use my usual conversational tactics which mainly focused on the well-being of the baby. The midwife sat on the bed beside the woman and held her hand.

    • Word count: 2080
  14. Home care workers pay an important part in the delivery of care services today. Do their status and training reflect this importance?

    The cost of care was funded by taxpayers and the care was provided by paid workers. In practice, institutional care was under-funded and it only provided a minimum of care under very poor conditions. The NHSCCA 1990 intended for closing down large-scale institutions and bringing support services into the community. The aim was to enable people in need to remain in their own homes and to enable their families to provide the care. So, as well as meaning care provided outside institutions, community care came to mean in addition that the family is the best place for care, for adults and children, and services should be geared to support family care.

    • Word count: 1095
  15. How the communication cycle is used to communicate in difficult, complex and sensitive issues

    According to Piaget Infants are driven to explore the world by their congenital reflexes which they are born with. Within this stage there are 6 sub- stages throughout. Piaget believed that it was in the 8-12 month stage that object permanence developed within a child. Piaget did a test on infants where he used an attractive toy. After showing it to the infant he would then cover it with a beret to see if the infant would search for the toy. He noticed that infants younger than 6 months did not look for the toy and came to the conclusion that infants don't understand that even though an object cannot be perceived it still exists (object permanence).

    • Word count: 1574
  16. Is Homeopathy Really Effective? Homeopathy has no scientific prove that it truly works. Besides, homeopathy does not really work in state hospitals and there is a little interaction between doctors and homeopaths.

    For example, when you peel an onion, you will feel burn in your eyes or feel itch and may be feeling crying and you might also have a runny nose and begin to sneeze. Therefore, if you had similar symptoms during a cold or allergy attack, such as a runny nose, watery eyes and sneezing, "a homeopathic micro-dose of the remedy red onion would help your body heal itself" (What is Homeopathy?, 2009). Basically, homeopaths believe that symptoms are the body's way of fighting diseases or the body's healing power (INTRODUCTION: What is homoeopathy?, 2009).

    • Word count: 2649
  17. Physiotherapy Case Study. A patients prognosis may be greatly enhanced if serious or life threatening conditions may be diagnosed early (Greenhalgh & Selfe 2006). This is particularly true of a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), which involves a clot or thro

    Observation is a major tool in the physiotherapists armour (Petty 2006) not only in terms of posture, symmetry and muscle form but also of more localised physiological changes (Hengeveld & Banks 2005). I observed and recognised these changes, and although the exact diagnosis eluded me I intuitively felt something was wrong. Thus as a student I felt it best to consult my clinical educator, where it was decided to 2 refer the patient to the Accident and emergency department on the suspicion of a DVT, which was subsequently diagnosed.

    • Word count: 2698
  18. Orthotic management of common forefoot deformities: a clinical practice guideline for hallux valgus.

    The review will conclude with a clinical practice guidelines outline on hallux valgus. Sources and selection criteria Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials evaluating orthotic treatment of forefoot deformities were included. Excluded were studies comparing areas of surgery solely. This review was prepared by searching the following databases: Medline 1966-present; AMED; CINAHL via Clinicians Health Channel; Cochrane library; Pubmed and Google Scholar. Key words used were "forefoot deformities", hallux valgus", "metatarsalgia", "Morton's neuroma", "orthotics" and "foot orthoses". The electronic search was complemented by checking of reference lists of relevant articles for additional studies reported.

    • Word count: 2901
  19. What are the main challenges faced by mature students studying Healthcare courses in Higher Education? A narrative review

    The general household survey reported that the number of mature students in full-time university education rose from 3% in 1960 to 29% in 1994 (Egerton 2000). Indeed, 60% of undergraduates in the UK are now over twenty one (Direct.Gov 2011). UCAS (2011) admission figures reveal that mature student applications have increased each year since 2001, with significantly large increases in the over twenty fives. In recent times this appears to be accelerating further, UCAS figures from 2008 and 2009 cycles report that university applications are increasing across all age ranges but particularly from mature students with an increase of 27 % from applicants over the age of 21 for this cycle (UCAS 2011).

    • Word count: 9014
  20. Falling in Parkinsons disease: the impact on informal caregivers. Citing previous research Davey et al (2004) purport that the emotional consequences of falling in Parkinsons may impact greater upon the caregivers than the faller, they go on to

    The authors attempt to extrapolate caregiver's views and experiences regarding repeated fallers with Parkinson's disease with the objective of identifying received education and solutions to manage the problem more efficiently in the future (Davey et al 2004). The researchers interviewed fourteen caregivers employing in-depth semi-structured interviews to produce the raw data. This data was then analysed using a grounded theory approach to illicit six major themes and led the researchers to conclude that managing falls impacted significantly on the caregivers physical, psychological and social well-being, concluding that more education, advice and support from health professionals was needed for caregivers with reference to managing falls.

    • Word count: 2373
  21. The use of the foot orthoses in the treatment of paediatric flat foot: an evidence based overview

    The literature was then structured keeping in mind with the hierarchical levels of evidence. (2) The focus of this review was on randomized controlled trials as they have a strong level of evidence (2). Optimum level of evidence comes from a systematic review based on a meta-analysis of a variety of randomized controlled trials (1) however, since there is only one current study by Rome et al. (1) which is still in progress and so cannot be included in this review.

    • Word count: 2379
  22. Cardiovascular Fluoroscopy

    Comparisons will be drawn with other advanced imaging equipment to compare their main differences. Cardiovascular fluoroscopy combines real time imaging (fluoroscopy) with diagnostic and interventional procedures involving the cardiovascular system, the components of which include circulation within the heart (cardio), and the blood vessels (vascular). The two other types of fluoroscopy are standard and mobile, which will be looked at in comparison with cardiovascular fluoroscopy within this essay. The advantages of angiographic procedures compared to surgery to perform similar examinations is that it is non evasive, as access is gained percutaneously.

    • Word count: 2575
  23. Naturopathic Medicine

    The fourth principle, "Treat the Whole Person", emphasizes the instability of health must be handled comprehensively, rather than as a portion or individually. The fifth principle, "Doctor as a Teacher", indicates the accountability that naturopaths hold to educate their patients and further sanction them and to become responsible for their own wellbeing. Finally, the sixth principle of "Disease Prevention and Health Promotion" accentuates on taking action depending on projected problems according to existing disparities, genetic vulnerability and other lifestyle decisions (Canadian Association of Naturopathic Doctors, 2010).

    • Word count: 1941
  24. Nutrition

    • Word count: 1339
  25. Diathermy; a two pronged attack. In this assignment, the responsibilities of the operating department practitioner when dealing with diathermy will be analysed and reflected upon, as well as how this relates to aspects of best practice in patient care. I

    For this reason, it is seen as the safer of the two methods. Bipolar diathermy is generally used when coagulation only is required, or where a patient has a pacemaker in situ. Marsh (2008) discusses that although most pacemaker manufacturers strongly warn against the use of monopolar diathermy, sometimes it cannot be avoided (e.g. an emergency situation where the benefits outweigh the risks). This is specified in the Health professions council (HPC 2008) section 2b.3 which promotes the need to adapt practice to meet different physical needs.

    • Word count: 2626

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