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University Degree: Healthcare

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  1. End of Life Care, Ready or Not??

    It emphasized the importance of individuals taking some control in the way they die. Two thirds of the population chooses to die at home yet most die in hospitals. If individuals clearly express their wishes then families can attempt to carry them out. If a patient desires to die at home there are experienced medical teams that can provide care in the home and support families in doing so. This team is known as the hospice team and consists of nurses, doctors, social workers and clergy to support this patient and family on their journey.

    • Word count: 1240
  2. Rise in Healthcare spending

    Still others believe that the rise can be traced to the lack of competition in the health care marketplace and have proposed new approaches for health plans to compete on price and outcomes. Economists thinking about rising health care spending note that there are only two approaches for slowing its growth: reduce spending on high-cost medical care that produces no benefits, and reduce spending on high-cost care that yields some health benefits but at even higher costs. Along these lines, some have proposed that we need to "ration rationally" to slow spending growth.

    • Word count: 2851
  3. Does Improving Quality, Increase or Decrease the Cost of Healthcare Provided?

    With consumers, employers, government, and commercial payers intensifying their demands for lower costs, higher quality, better access, and more information about outcomes, most hospitals have undertaken a series of competitive efforts to retain and, if possible, improve their market positions. Many have engaged in mergers and consolidations intended to effect economies of scale and place them in a better position to negotiate with managed care organizations and other payers. Others, in communities with excess hospital capacity have either closed or been converted to other uses, such as ambulatory or long-term care facilities.

    • Word count: 1417
  4. PAEDIATRIC FIRST AID

    against face or to give the child a rolled up plug of cotton soaked in oil of cloves to hold against the affected area. * If the condition is persisted, I will call for the 999 (an Ambulance) * I will contact the parent immediately. * The accident book will be completed immediately. Vomiting: * To reassure the casualty * To give myself a personal safety from infection * To put gloves on * To know what cause the illness * Check the area * Ensure there is a bowl nearby * Support the child's head when vomiting * Wash

    • Word count: 4174
  5. Free essay

    Cardiorespiratory case study

    costophrenic angles, heart & mediastinum L shift Fluids: IV2L, oral 0, Urine output 12L (10ml/hr) Investigations/Results: Urea 6.2mmol/L Creatine 114mmol/L Word:325 Hb 9 Platlets 120*10(9)/L WCC 6 Medication: * Noradrenaline * Paracetamol * Bupivicaine * Omeprazole A: * ?lung volume (2? atelectasis) * V/Q mismatch * Unstable CVS * Acute renal failure. * Unproductive cough Mr. Jones is suffering from decreased lung volume in base of his left lung, secondary to atelectasis (deflated alveoli). His recent surgery, history of chest infections with the latest diagnosis of COPD, along with his smoking history are all factors that increase the risk of developing atelectasis and other post pulmonary complications (Brooks-Brunn 1995).

    • Word count: 3867
  6. Musculoskeletal Assessment and Treatment 2 case study

    (Vernon 2001). As the soft tissue in the shoulder region is still tender and prone to damage, the patient may be suffering from a reoccurrence of the injury. Evidence suggests possible tears in the upper fibres of the shoulder, due to his accident at work. The stiffness in the morning could indicate presents of inflammation. Inflammation in a muscle produces swelling that may lead to impingement on the nervous system, which is causing the referred pain in the elbow. Nerve root irritation in C5 is also a possibility as C5 dermatome covers the lateral aspect of the arm.

    • Word count: 1932
  7. Care of the Elderly

    This can lead to greater risk of falling (McDonald 2004). Conditions like stroke, dementia, osteoporosis and low blood pressure, which are common in older people, can cause weak muscles, dizziness and confusion that increase the risk of falling (NHS 2007). In addition some medicines can cause dizziness, balance problems, confusion or sleepiness, which also increase the risk of a fall. Interactions between medicines can also cause these symptoms as research shows that those on four or more medicines are at greater risk of having a fall.

    • Word count: 3284
  8. `Why can it be difficult to decide whether or not a person is an informal carer and does it matter? Base your answer on the case of someone you know, or have read about.

    first 25 years of Barry`s life Valerie had looked after him without too much difficulty, accessing day centres three times a week. Things became a little more difficult when her husband passed away. She started to struggle, as now she needed to do daily shopping, pay bills and day to day household chores. Her husband had previously done this for her, giving her the time to devote to their son. Valerie started to struggle and did not know where to turn; the rest of her children now lived away from the area and could not give her the day to day help she needed.

    • Word count: 881
  9. Free essay

    Rationing healthcare

    In other words, demand increases everyday, growing faster than ever, whereas supply does not. An article by Christopher Hands states that "In June the BMA conference was told, "Rationing has become a necessary evil. We need to formalise rationing to prevent an unregulated, widening, postcode lottery of care. Government no longer has a choice."" There are two types of rationing healthcare, implicit and explicit. Implicit occurs when the public are not informed of rationing and the reasons behind it, explicit occurs when the public and media are fully aware of rationing and why it has had to occur.

    • Word count: 1381
  10. Mental Health and Stigma

    It discourages victims of mental illness to seek the help they need, this leads to problems escalating due to lack of medical input, and in worst case scenarios, suicides. According to the Department of Health (1999) on average, two people with mental health problems commit suicide every day. In a study on student suicide by researchers from the University of Central Lancashire with King's College London, Stanley et al found (of twenty case studies of student suicides which occurred between May 2000 and June 2005)

    • Word count: 2346
  11. NHS as a good corporate citizen

    It should promote good governance - this describes the process of decision-making, 'good governance' is accomplishing this process with no corruption or influence within the decisions or decision-makers. The environment according to the World Health Organisation is something that "...comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical, biological, social, and psychosocial factors in the environment..." http://www.who.int/phe/en/ It is widely accepted that for people to lead healthy lives, the environment that surrounds us must be health enhancing and provide opportunities for a healthy life.

    • Word count: 1550
  12. Reflection on Interprofessional Learning

    This sums up to me the processes we go through to comprehend events and to learn from them. There are a number of different model's each with their own strategies to encourage reflection. The first model I looked at was Borton's framework (1970, cited in Jasper.2003, p.101). This model presents quite a broad basis for reflection. The model guide is WHAT?, SO WHAT?, NOW WHAT?. Borton identified these as the three basic information processing functions. I found that Jasper (2003)

    • Word count: 3153
  13. Diverticular Disease - A Case Study

    Aetiology A diverticulum is a single sac-like pouch of mucous membrane which projects through the colon wall. The protrusion occurs in weak areas of the bowel wall through which blood vessels can penetrate. There are normally multiple diverticula present. They can vary in size with a typical diameter of 5-10mm but they may reach a larger 20mm. (World Gastroenterology Organisation 2007) Diverticula occur when an area of weakness exists in the colon wall and is accompanied by increased pressure in the lumen (Crawford 1999). Dietary fibre intake can have an impact on lumen pressure, if there are low amounts of fibre in the diet this increases peristalsis which increases lumen pressure and results in herniation in the colon wall.

    • Word count: 2223
  14. Professional Autonomy and Accountability in Radiography

    Therefore any individual wishing to practice a profession covered by the HPC such as radiographers, are legally bound to register with the council. As such the HPC has the authority to govern the professional practice with the power to prevent the individual from practicing if they do not meet the standards set by the council. RADIOGRAPHER TRAINING The Standard of Proficiency for Radiographers (HPC 2007) includes details regarding Professional autonomy and accountability. Such an authority as the HPC subsequently has an impact on the CPD of the health professional.

    • Word count: 2384
  15. Assisted Suicide

    The website www.assistedsuicide.org/suicide_laws provided several assisted suicide laws in various countries. In countries like Sweden, Norway, Ireland and Italy assisted suicide is forbidden. Canada, England and Wales are places where there is a case of a crime assisting a non-crime. This is because assisting suicide in these countries is a crime but suicide is not. Germany has no penalty for either suicide or assisted suicide while Denmark has no specific law banning assisted suicide nor does Luxemborg. But in Luxemborg, under 410-1 of its Penal Code, a person could be penalized for failing to assist a person in danger.

    • Word count: 2027
  16. Why is paid home care important and what skills are needed to do the job? Does the status of home care workers reflect these skills and, if not, why not?

    Home carers can work with children, people with physical or learning disabilities, older people or families. 'The major objectives of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990 was to promote the development of services enabling people to live in their homes whenever possible, to ensure that practical support for informal carers was a priority and to make a proper assessment of need at an individual level' (Hughes, 1995, p.6) (Unit 3, p.143). Home care can, therefore, provide people with more control over their lives and consequently they or their families can gain a greater sense of wellbeing.

    • Word count: 1244
  17. Why can it be difficult to decide whether or not a person is an informal carer and does it matter?

    Labelling Parker and Lawton (1994) (Unit 1, p.16) said informal carers in families perform the following tasks: Taking care of another individuals personal hygiene; household chores; moving people who cannot move without assistance; paperwork; keeping people company; taking people out; giving medicine and keeping people occupied. During the year following Fred's wife's arrival home from hospital, the tasks, as outlined by Parker Lawton, dominated his life. He gave up his employment and stayed at home to care for his wife.

    • Word count: 866
  18. Why is identity a particular issue for someone living in a residential setting? How can care workers help individuals maintain their identity and what dilemmas can this raise?

    In 1950, Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalyst, published his well-known book, Childhood and Society, in which he lays out his theory that personal identity is formed in stages, from infancy through to adulthood. Erikson's theory suggests the first stage during early infancy a child establishes a sense of oneness with the world around them, during pre-school years children learn independence and doubt, once this is established, during the ages of approximately 6-10 years, initiative and guilt develops and the child builds up a conscience, throughout this stage the level of discipline received by the child has a large bearing on their initiative.

    • Word count: 1631
  19. Why are confidentiality policies important in care work? What are the problems in putting such policies into practice? Use examples from K100 to illustrate your answer.

    The nature of the guidance possibly included within a confidentiality policy would differ across professions and be specific to the organisation in which it was implemented. Confidentiality policies are intended to assure the service user they can trust the organisation, and those working in the organisation that information recorded about them or information they may disclose their self would be treated in a confidential manner. If an agency is required to disclose confidential information about a service user to outside organisations, a confidentiality policy can serve to assist in accurate information being shared in an appropriate way.

    • Word count: 1766
  20. Explain your understanding of unhealthy communities. Draw on K100 to illustrate how community-based projects can contribute to the development of healthy communities.

    To recover the nation's economy the Thatcherite government promoted self responsibility, private enterprise and home ownership. Huge numbers of council houses were sold to their tenants, and the profits generated served to alleviate the massive budget deficit at the time. With social housing being sold to those that could afford to buy, those who could not afford to buy, the poor, the uneducated, the young, the unemployed, migrants and the very old were marginalised in the most inferior housing stock, generally located within run down housing estates and high rise blocks of flats. Within these communities there would often be a lack of facilities, such as parks, sports facilities or private and public services and in particular health and education.

    • Word count: 1316
  21. People in need of care may spend their lives in public spaces. How can privacy, choice and independence be maintained in these situations?

    'Willcocks et al. (1987) report on findings from a national consumer study of local authority residential homes for older people carried out in 1980/81' (Unit 7, p.66). 'They comment on the variety of ways where privacy may be difficult to achieve due to the lack of single rooms as a private space, that residents could not lock their rooms and the public and communal environment of lounges and dining rooms lead to visiting taking place in public areas' (Unit 7, p.67).

    • Word count: 1523
  22. Heart Disease

    Physical activities can help control blood cholesterol, diabetes and obesity, as well as help lower blood pressure. Children of parents with heart disease are more likely to develop it themselves. African Americans have more severe high blood pressure than any other race and are at a higher risk of having heart disease. Other major risk factors that can be lowered by modification, treatment or control are obesity, stress, smoking and an excessive intake of alcohol. People who are under great stress are likely to overeat and start smoking more than they usually do.

    • Word count: 1217
  23. Case study - stress, treatement plan.

    This will help to break down any tension or stiffness that he has from his job. He is fairly active and drinks plenty of water each day so this will also help in the release of any lactic acid that has built up on his muscles. I will also perform some percussion to stimulate the cardiovascular system and help improve his circulation. Session One I spent a lot of time of doing effleurage all over ****'s body as he comes into contact with a lot of grease and dirt because of his job as a mechanic.

    • Word count: 1406
  24. massage case studies

    Because of the amount of time he spends at work he gets little time to exercise. He was once very fit, he use to work on a building site, but would see himself as been very unfit now. He has put on a bit of weight over the last couple of years and is finding it hard to lose it as he lose his sweet stuff and eats a lot of microwave meals. TREATMENT PLAN Because **** has no serious health problems, and I found no areas of tension or stiffness, I intend to make ****'s sessions as relaxing as possible.

    • Word count: 1496
  25. The importance of optimism

    How Optimism Promotes Health Seligman suggests that one of the ways optimism fosters longer and healthier lives is through the immune system. Although research and results on this topic are mixed, some evidence suggests that dispositional optimism predicts slower disease progression. For example, one study found that optimism in HIV patients predicted less decrease in CD4 cells and less increase in viral load when compared to pessimists. The CD4 count tells how strong the immune system is, how far HIV disease has advanced (the stage of the disease), and helps predict the risk of complications and debilitating infections.

    • Word count: 2305

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