Handwashing or hand hygiene is an important measure for preventing cross-transmission of micro-organisms.

Handwashing. In 1847 Ignaz P. Semmelweis performed what is believed to be the first study to demonstrate that effective handwashing decreased the potential for cross-infection. His study showed that handwashing had a major part to play in controlling infection. This essay shall explain why handwashing and it's guidelines are important in healthcare and as Semmelweis found their important role in infection control. It shall also explore the variety of substances that can be used in the procedure and their relevance. Handwashing or hand hygiene is an important measure for preventing cross-transmission of micro-organisms. Reybrouck (1986) says that the purpose of handwashing is to reduce the load on the hands of these said micro-organisms. Indeed, McCulloch (1998) also acknowledges it's importance, determining the procedure as being the most principle within infection control. Micro-organisms naturally live on the skin, they are known as resident flora. Embedded deep and impossible to completely eradicate, they are occasionally associated with cross-infection. More significant in the area of infection control are transient bacteria, which are picked up, usually from other patients, and transferred to objects or people by touch (Roper, Logan & Tierney, 1996). The hands are a key source of transport (Holland, Jenkins, Soloman et al 2003), especially when coming into

  • Word count: 1099
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Subjects allied to Medicine
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Hospital script

My chosen theme is a hospital drama. Cast of Characters Sophia: A patient in a mental ward Munro: The doctor who tries to help her Nurse: Assists Dr. Munro Place A mental ward at a hospital. A young woman, SOPHIA, on her knees hunched over. The light bothers her. MUNRO: (Only a shadow) When did she arrive? NURSE: A few hours ago. MUNRO: She looks like she's barely alive. NURSE: She refused to eat anything when she first came. I did get her to eat some bread and drink a little water though. MUNRO: Thank you, Nurse that will be all. I'll update you later. Hello, SOPHIA. I'm Dr. MUNRO. (No response) We'll be working together from now on. What we need are some lights so we can see. SOPHIA: (Meekly) Please, no lights - MUNRO: Okay. (Pause) How are you feeling? I see you're not too good today. (SOPHIA looks away) Do you feel like talking? SOPHIA: (Gently) No thank you MUNRO: I hear you're not eating well. Can you tell me why? SOPHIA: (Pause) Bread and water suit me - I want nothing else. MUNRO: I can have the nurse bring something by... SOPHIA: I told you bread and water suit me. I don't want anything - and I don't want to talk anymore - can I please be by myself? MUNRO: I'm sorry. All I'm here to do is help SOPHIA: That's all they've done here - poke, prop, and interfere - I've never felt so so umm never mind... - I just want to be left

  • Word count: 1084
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Subjects allied to Medicine
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This essay explores the topic of communication and its relevance to clinical practice.

Reflection on communication This essay explores the topic of communication and its relevance to clinical practice. I will discuss all the skills and knowledge that I have acquired whilst working as a Trainee Assistant Practitioner (TAP) and how my job role has changed since being a Clinical Support Worker (CSW) I will explain how I will develop this in to my new role as an Assistant Practitioner by using examples in my clinical placements that can then be applied to my own practice. As a Clinical Support worker I did not have a lot of responsibility within communication, I was not expected to communicate with the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) regarding a patient’s health or well-being. I would have been expected to communicate any information regarding a patient to the qualified nurse that I was working alongside of and they would deal with any issues and speak to the Doctors. The information that I would cascade down to the registered practitioner would be the patients observations, any changes in their bowel movements i.e. loose bowels that require monitoring, if they were I pain or if I noticed any markings on their skin (pressure damage) whilst helping with their personal care. Throughout my Trainee Assistant Practitioner training course I have grown in confidence in dealing with any issues regarding my patients, I now feel more confident to speak to the Doctors and

  • Word count: 1084
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Subjects allied to Medicine
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History of Practical Nursing in Canada.

History of Practical Nursing in Canada As a practical nursing student, I want to know what is practical nursing and how practical nursing evolved. By knowing the development in nursing history, I will be better ready to understand and adapt to possible changes in the future. And I can be better to join this glorious job as well. Nursing in Canada can be dated back more than 300 years. The first woman who regularly cared for the sick was Marie Rollet, who married to a surgeon-apothecary , Louis Hebert in early 17th century. She worked alongside her husband, as was the practice for French wives of the early 17th century, providing care to settlers and natives. Early Canadian nursing history records the numerous contributions of nursing sisters and their assistants. In 1693, three "hospital nuns" arrived from France to found the Hotel-Dieu at Quebec. Two years later, Jeanne Mance arrived at Quebec along with Maisonneuve and his band of followers to found a settlement at Montreal. They began to care for the sick and helped to establish the hotel-Dieu hospital. In the eighteenth century the growth of cities brought an increase in the number of hospitals and the need for nursing education. The first training school for nurse in Canada is founded at the St. Catharines General and Marine Hospital in St. Catharines, Ontario in 1874 by Dr. Theophilus Mack. The second training school

  • Word count: 1083
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Subjects allied to Medicine
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Essay by trainee practitioner. During my time spent on placement on Intensive Care Unit (ICU) I looked after a young 20 year old male with traumatic head injuries

Essay wrote by Trainee Assistant Practitioner This essay describes the effect of an assault on a young male patient. During a night out in Leeds. It also describes the trauma of the family, friends, police officers and staff on intensive care. It will also explain the reason for a patient being intubated (using an endotracheal) and ventilated. When working as a level 2 clinical support worker, I was not involved in caring for patients with a traumatic brain injury. I was also not trained on assessing a patients Glasgow coma scale (GCS) it was the registered practitioners that had the responsibility to this critical assessment. Since my training to be an Assistant practitioner I have been taught to do these assessments, I now have a better understanding of the assessment and what it involves and also what the patients responses are and pupil sizes. During my time spent on placement on Intensive Care Unit (ICU) I looked after a young 20 year old male with traumatic head injuries he was physically and sexually assaulted during a night out in Leeds. He came in to Accident and Emergency (A&E) at 03.20 the patient was intubated and ventilated on arrival he then underwent extensive brain surgery he had a craniotomy in theatre (removal of bone flap) he was admitted to (ICU) at 11.00 after having extensive surgery for a Traumatic brain injury (TBI). He was an unknown patient as all

  • Word count: 1082
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Subjects allied to Medicine
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Fasting patients before surgery is a well-established practice that prevents the aspiration of gastric contents and reduces the risk of regurgitation and vomiting (Jester and Williams, 1999)

Fasting patients before surgery is a well-established practice that prevents the aspiration of gastric contents and reduces the risk of regurgitation and vomiting (Jester and Williams, 1999) A period of fasting is a legal requirement (Hung,1992) However, the actual length of fasting is determined by the health professionals, which is appropriate given their knowledge of the patient. It is widely acknowledged that patients are being excessively fasted before surgery. (Jester and Williams, 1999) but it is still hospital tradition and custom which dictates the decision. (Seymour,2000) Patients are typically fasted from midnight for morning surgery, and from 6am for afternoon surgery, but a blanket "nil by mouth" fast from midnight on the day of surgery is not only an accepted policy in the UK, but is also a worldwide reality. (Methery, 1996, Pandit and Pandit, 1997) In the past, anaesthetists recommended fasting for at least 8 hours (Shevde and Trivedi, 1991) If the length of fast is inadequate, a patient may potentially aspirate their stomach contents into their lungs, leading to aspiration pneumonitis, which ovccurs in 1-6 per 10,000 anaesthetics. (Olsson, 1986) According to Mendelsson, (1946) the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonitis increases when the patient has a gastric volume above 25ml and a gastric pH lower than 2.5. The ideal fasting time would avoid

  • Word count: 1074
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Subjects allied to Medicine
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A Tooth's Story.

A Tooth's Story - by Shekhar Shastri 11f Statement of intention - A visit to the dentist is often greeted with much trepidation for most of us. Many of us are absolutely terrified. But how would such a visit feel like for our teeth? In the form of a creative essay, this piece humorously attempts to describe a visit to the dentist from a tooth's perspective. The intended audience is young, fearful dental patients in surgery waiting rooms. It's a hard life, crushing and breaking down food, and all for what? So Shekhar can enjoy all those scrumptious flavours. I believe we teeth don't get enough credit for our actions. To add to this flagrant rort, - we're not even looked after properly! I mean, the least Shekhar could do would be to keep us clean. A bit of a brush, floss and mouthwash wouldn't hurt every once in a while, now would it? Once sparkling white molars, now I and my colleagues have been reduced to a discoloured mess of cavities. And now look where this has come to - a dreaded visit to the dentist, Dr. Burr. Sitting there inside the dental surgery's waiting room, I anxiously anticipated the grim fate that lies before me. Looking for consolation, I turn to the innocent smiles from children beaming at me from posters (or should they be a plaque or two) adorning the walls. Yet my gaze is soon interrupted by the shrill motorized buzz of dental drills reverberating from

  • Word count: 1066
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Subjects allied to Medicine
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Reflection In Presentation

REFLECTION IN PRESENTATION Definition Boud et al (1985) suggested / stated that reflection in the context of learning is a generic for those intellectual and effective activities in which individuals engage to explore their experiences in order to lead to a new understanding and experience. UKCC (1992) Code of Professional Conduct: Clause 1: Act always in such a way so as to promote and safeguard the well-being of the patient and the client. Clause 4: Ensure that no action or omission on your part or within your sphere of responsibility is detrimental to the interests, condition or the safety of the patient and the client. The author is going to use The Gibbs Reflective Cycle to help her in the process of reflection, as reflection can be a difficult experience without the guidance and support of an expert. Description of Incident We were told in our class that there was a group presentation being held and each of the student had to make a group, choose a subject and do research on that subject. Me and my group partner met each other and decided on a subject on which we could prepare a presentation of 500 words and also write an essay of 2500 words. But my group partner had an operation the following week which made it impossible for her to come to the library and do any research at all. When I came to know this, I got worried and told my tutor about this, but my

  • Word count: 1044
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Subjects allied to Medicine
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I think that the most effective story was "The Call" because it is more understandable and easy than the "The Old Nurse's Story" and it was written in 1989 and it is modern and set up in North England.

G.C.S.E Coursework For Wide Reading I think that the most effective story was "The Call" because it is more understandable and easy than the "The Old Nurse's Story" and it was written in 1989 and it is modern and set up in North England. The old nurse's story is confusing and hard to understand because of the language used, it was written in 1852 and it's in the old Victorian times. But it's been really exciting and enjoyable. The call is not really exciting and it just a normal story and its not enjoyable and it makes you board and because the ghost is just talking on the phone, you just don't get to see him/her. However the tension is built up by the phone calls. In "The Old Nurse's Story" when the house was on fire the tension was built up. Both of these stories are ghostly genre. In "The Old Nurse's Story" the storyteller was the nurse. And in "The Call" the storyteller was the security man of the Samaritans. Tension Built Up: When the ghost was talking on the phone to Meg and Geoff and the six phone calls. 'Why do you think he's going to kill me?' The weather in "The Call" was another thing that made the tension built up. It was cold, snowy and isolated. ' Christ I'm so cold' (and the fog is coming down). In "The Old Nurse's Story" the tension was built up when Miss Furnivall went to save the baby in the house, which was on fire. 'My little girls are crying oh, how

  • Word count: 1043
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Subjects allied to Medicine
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This essay will reflect on my first clinical experience during my placement.. Kelvin is a 7 years old boy who was admitted for sepsis (febrile neutropenia). I learnt about his medical history, his social background and treatment. I needed to have full un

This essay will reflect on my first clinical experience during my placement. I will discuss about four domains which are Professional and Ethical Practice, Care delivery, Care Management and Personal and Professional development. I will also define reflection as well as highlight my strength and weakness and relate theory to practice and then finally give an overall conclusion of my experience. According to Gibbs (1988), Reflective Cycle provides a straight forward and structural framework and encourages a clear description of the situation, analysis of feelings, evaluation of the experience, analysis to make sense of the experience, conclusion where other options are considered and reflection upon experience to examine what the professional would do should the situation arise again. The NMC (2008) standard code of conducts, performance and ethics requires all nurses and healthcare practitioners to recognise duty of confidentiality owed to patients as part of its code of professional conduct which states information about patients must be treated confidential and use it only for the purpose which it was given. As it is impractical to obtain consent every time information is shared with other multi disciplinary, you must ensure patients understand that some information may be made available to other members of the team involved in the delivery of their care. There must be

  • Word count: 1022
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Subjects allied to Medicine
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