motivation and leadership essay
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Motivation and Leadership Essay "How can the theories and models in leadership and motivation help a manager do his/her job more effectively?" Date: Monday January 7, 2008 Written By: Y Mi (Susana) Ngo Course Code: BOH4M1-21 When we think of the workforce today, I think we can all agree that it has really grown over the past decade to establish teamwork, motivation, and leadership as important factors to a successful growth. Workers are now encouraged to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. Employers are depending on leadership in each of its employees and really beginning to understand the need of its employees to improve their business(s). Motivation has become more challenging because of an increasing unstable work environment, the removal of direct supervision as a motivational instrument, and the lack of understanding about what motivates the new generations of people entering the workforce. Researchers are constantly speculating how leaders come about and what causes them to do their job more effectively. With all the observations surrounding how much motivation and leadership has an impact on the workforce; researchers have developed theories and models to explain motivation and leadership in organizational settings, which include the four-drive theory, the expectancy theory, the Maslow's needs hierarchy theory, the competency (trait)
Another example would be that employees work hard in hopes to eventually get a promotion and/or a raise (their desired outcome). So managers who remind and reassure employees that if they accomplish their goals they will be rewarded in some way, they will be able to do their job more effectively. The remaining part of the expectancy theory model is the outcome valances, which is the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome. Outcome valence is basically a positive or negative result. For instance, some people enjoy working with people as opposed to working alone, so if they had to work at home alone their situation would have a strong negative valence because it is moving them further away from fulfilling their needs. The expectancy theory plays a valuable role by detailing a person's thinking process when translating the challenging demands of the four drives into specific effort. Managers who understand this can assign certain employees specific jobs. Employees who enjoy working with people would be assigned to associate with people and by doing so; managers will notice greater productivity levels. The Maslow's needs hierarchy theory is a motivation theory of needs arranged in a "tree", whereby people are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes grateful. The Maslow's needs hierarchy theory concentrates a long list of needs into a ranking of five basic categories.
Managers who adopt the transformational perspective of leadership are unquestionably going to be able to do their job more efficiently because they will be able to develop a vision for their work unit, inspire and collectively bond employees to that vision, and build encouragement that makes that vision achievable. The situational leadership theory, also known as the life-cycle theory of leadership, proposes that effective leaders vary their style with the employee's or work team's ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. The situational leadership model also identifies four leadership styles- telling, selling, participating, and delegating; with one leadership style being more effective in different situations. Manager's who choose to follow the situational leadership theory can benefit through two of the four leadership styles: telling and delegating. By constantly telling employees who they should be doing and always delegating, it is no wonder a lot manager's choose to follow this theory because it gets the job done. Often the employees lack the skills, knowledge, self-motivation, and commitment and for that reason manager's take on the role of showing how things are done and continuously guiding them to achieve organizational goals. In conclusion, theories and models in leadership and motivation help a manager do his/her job more effectively for the reason that with the knowledge of these theories and models they have a better understanding of how and why individuals work they way they do, thus changing their management style to help promote the growth of the organization.
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