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# overview of GPS

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Middle

For measurements of a shorter range the carrier phase errors can be ignored because of the high accuracy static has incorporated. It works like this, the surveyor with the GPS receiver sets up over a known position with coordinates x,y,z. then using a different receiver the user stands over a position which he/she wants to know. To understand why this process needs time is because of the 'cycle ambiguity problem' this is where it needs time to solve the integer number of cycles between the satellites. This is one of its drawbacks, in that static processing is to slow but accurate. Rapid static Very closely related to static positing but with a difference in occupation time, where static takes hours, this method only takes minutes. To achieve a shorter time has something to do with the ambiguity problem discussed above. There are two ways in which the problem can be eradicated, the problem of occupation that is. Often the problems money is thrown to solve it, one way would be is to have very expensive equipment and software, which could calculate equations very rapidly. This is the simple way of solving a problem but expensive. A less expensive approach would be to combine carrier phase with p-code measurements which would then get rid of the least squares solution for ambiguities and the combination of both the measurements would involve search routines as the GPS receiver is well capable of doing. Where static positions can take up to two hours, rapid static can reduce this time to around 20 minutes, a technique called wide laning makes this possible. Basically the GPS frequency bands L1 and L2 are put together in a linear combination, when both L1 and L2 are combined, 2 distinct signals arise. One is called narrow lane and the other wide lane. Also one is slower than the other and the wavelengths are different compared to L1 and L2. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the end my decision was undertaken. Using the theodolite we sighted to station2 from station1 and then extracted the data, and then we sighted to station 1 from station2, to give the distance and angles. We did this throughout the day, but because we did not know how to start off, it took sometime to get going, we called it a day at station5. Events on this day, reduced our team count to 4, Sarab Jit decided that the whole course was not for him and he left the group, Andrew Baily was then allocated group leader. Wednesday: day3 Carrying on from yesterday, we managed to finish of the final three stations, which were stations, 5, 6 and 7. We did not have any problems on this day because we knew what we were doing and I made sure that everyone was taking turns in handling the equipment so that they learn. Around the university there were other groups conducting similar exercises, but were falling behind and so we called it a day, because we were ahead of them all. Another reason was because we did not want to rush the detailing of the area, as we knew this would need concentration. Thursday: day4 Detailing of the area around the library, here we decided what should be detailed and what should not, because it was not practical to detail every item around the area, we decided to detail large objects, which ranged from pillars to flower beds. The whole day was spent detailing however we did not manage to finish the detailing. Friday: day 5 The final day, on this day detailing was completed and the group sat down and looked at the data to see if it 'looked' correct and that there were no major problems or concerns in general about the week. Members of group: Imtiaz Ali, Andrew Baily, Thomas Docker, Hoi Wing Cheung ?? ?? ?? ?? Surveying people ...read more.

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