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Child Development

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Introduction

The task I have been given to write about is to describe three patterns in each area of development of children from birth to 8 years. I will link each milestone which is ages 0-2, 3-5 and 5-8 with each area of development. The areas of development are physical, intellectual, emotional and social. The development of a child can be affected in a variety of ways for example behavioural problems, environmental factors and psychological factors. I will also be studying my cousin Katie who is 8 years old. Patterns of development There are certain patterns of development children are expected to follow. Although they are expected to follow patterns they do develop at their own rate. There are some factors which effect children's development such as * Amount of attention given to the child by parents and carers for example encouragement and time. * Health problems or genes inherited * Quality of the child's environment. If there are serious delays in development it maybe an indication of an underlying problem. Growth and development are closely linked. Physical growth Every child's rate of growth varies. At birth a babies head is out of proportion with the rest of its body. The child's growth is monitored by the health visitor and plot on the centile chart. Gross motor skills - use of muscles to control the body and larger movements. Fine motor skills- smaller movements and manipulation. Sensory skills- use of the senses: sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. ...read more.

Middle

Depending on opportunities to speak a child's speech will develop depending this factor. Verbal communication is developed by mimicking others. Language is made up of composite parts are linked together: * Verbal communication * Listening * Gestures * Facial expression * Writing * Reading * Pictures Verbal Communication Children not only learn the meaning of the word but grammar as well. This takes a lot of practice. Development of this can be helped by such activities as: * Mimicking sounds * Learning the definition of different sounds * Listening to voices * Practising sounds * People talking to the child The development of verbal communications varies from child to child. Katie enjoys to mimic sounds and people. There are two stages in language development these are: * Pre-Linguistic * Linguistic Pre-linguistic stage occurs in the period babies are able to gain, attention by means of crying, smiling and facial expressions. Linguistic is when speech begins to develop. To start the words are usually one syllable they are also holophrases which means a single word has several meanings. Listening Children must learn this to communicate effectively. This skill is usually mastered by the time a child stars school. Non verbal communication This is evident in a child from a very early age. Some methods of this are: * Using different tones for different emotions. * Using eyes to make eye contact * Displaying different emotions by means of facial expressions * Using gestures is another way to communicate. Cognitive Development This is when a child develops understanding of the environment. ...read more.

Conclusion

At 9 months the child becomes very attached to their primary carer. They also enjoy playing but still cry if they need changing or if they are hungry. At 1 year there is a lot of affection towards parents and familiar adults. They can also play simple games and wave goodbye. Toddler 1-3 years At this age a child learns that each child is a unique individual. They also recognise their own name when they begin to crawl they explore the environment around them. Tantrums and mood swings are very common at this stage. Although they gradually disappear when the child is more content. Pre-school 3-5 years They have more self-identity and are more sociable individuals. They are also more able to express their emotions and are more confident. There is also a development of friendships and they are happier to be left alone with adults. At the age of 4 and 5 they are friendlier and have a greater self-confidence. They are also more trusting. School age 5-8 years At this age the understanding of gender roles is established. An understanding of rules and fair play is developed. A confidence and proudness of their work is also visible. Between 6 and 8 years the willingness to share equipment is visible. They are also more critical of their achievements. The child is also easily influenced by older people and also like to be included if they are left out they get upset. At the age of 8 they have developed their on personality and identity. ?? ?? ?? ?? Geraldine Bell 13 H AO1 ...read more.

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