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Describe the investigations that are carried out to enable the diagnosis of Heart Disease and Breast Cancer.

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Introduction

´╗┐Unit 14: Physiological Disorders. P3: Describe the investigations that are carried out to enable the diagnosis of these disorders. Coronary heart disease requires many tests and investigations before a diagnosis can be made. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most widely used tests for detecting heart problems. With the help of this technique the doctor gets a picture of the electrical activity that regulates the heart?s cycle of contraction and relaxation. It?s very important to have an ECG as part of initial evaluation for any person who is suspected of or diagnosed with coronary heart disease. The test is likely to be repeated periodically to find out the occurrence of a heart attack between examinations. An exercise tolerance test, also known as an exercise stress test, indicates whether your heart gets enough blood flow and oxygen when it?s working the hardest. The doctor orders the test if you have symptoms of heart disease or to test the effectiveness of the treatment you?re receiving. ...read more.

Middle

In stroke patients, it gives valuable information about the location and extent of brain injury. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan produces detailed pictures of internal organs, including the heart and brain. Patients lie in a short tunnel-like machine which contains a cylindrical magnet. Short bursts of magnetic fields and radio waves create images of parts of the body as required. MRI can measure the flow of blood through some of the major arteries and can detect abnormal heart function in disorders such as cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease), coronary heart disease, and congenital heart defects and help define the location and extent of brain injury in stroke patients. Breast cancer also has many investigations that take place before a diagnosis can be made. These can include the following. A biopsy is when a sample is taken of the lump or abnormal area. The biopsy sample is then analysed in a laboratory and the cells are examined. ...read more.

Conclusion

A mammogram is one of the most important tools to diagnose breast cancer. A mammogram uses low-dose X-ray on the breast tissue to obtain a picture of the insides of your breasts. It?s used mostly for women who are older than 35. In younger women the breast tissue is more dense so it?s more difficult to detect any changes in the breast. The procedure is very safe, and it doesn?t take more than 20 minutes. There is some discomfort and pain in the breasts when the breast is pressed on by an upper and a lower plate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or MRI, is another imaging technology used in the diagnosis of cancer. Unlike a mammogram that uses X-rays to get the images of the breast, MRIs use magnets and radio waves to create 3D images of the breast tissue. Sometimes a dye is injected in your arm. Cancer cells need a large amount of blood supply for their growth, and the MRI shows where and whether the dye is concentrated in certain areas indicating cancer cells, and in the picture it appears as a white patch on the dark background. ...read more.

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