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Describe the structure and development of bones and the skeleton and the factors that influence it.

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National Diploma in Health and Social Care Unit 32 Mobility and Exercise for Health and Social Care P1,P2,M1 - Describe the structure and development of bones and the skeleton and the factors that influence it. (A)Ossification The skeleton is developed during foetal development; ossification is the name given to bone formation and happens in two ways which are Intramembranous and Endochondrial. Intramembranous Intramembranous ossification involves the replacement of sheet-like connective tissue membranes with bony tissue. Bones that are formed in this way are called Intramembranous bones. They include certain flat bones of the skull and some of the irregular bones. The future bones are first formed as connective tissue membranes. Endochondrial Endochondral ossification involves the replacement of hyaline cartilage with bony tissue. Most of the bones of the skeleton are formed in this way. These bones are called endochondral bones. In this process, the future bones are first formed as hyaline cartilage models. This is the type of bone formation found in the development of long bones such as the femur and humerus. (B) Developing of the skeleton During the first few weeks of conception, parts of the skeleton begin to form and by the end of the eighth week, the skeletal pattern is formed with cartilage and connective tissue membranes and ossification begins. ...read more.


There are three different types: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibro cartilage. Cartilage serves to provide structure and support to the body's other tissues without being as hard or rigid as bone. It can also provide a cushioning effect in joints. * Hyaline cartilage makes up the majority of the body's cartilage. It lines the bones in joints, helping them to articulate smoothly. * Elastic cartilage is more flexible than the other types of cartilage because of the elastin fibers it contains. This type of cartilage is found in the outer ear. It provides the perfect balance of structure and flexibility and helps keep tubular structures open. * Fibro cartilage is the strongest and most rigid type of cartilage. It contains more collagen than hyaline cartilage. Fibrocartilage makes up the intervertebral discs, connects tendons and ligaments to bones, and appears in other high-stress areas. Ligaments connect bones to each other over joints. The skeleton is a framework of bones and cartilage providing four major functions for the body they are: 1. Protection-The skeleton provides protection for the bodies vital organs i.e. brain, heart and lungs and the spinal cord. 2. Shape & Support-The skeleton provides the shape and support that gives the body its shape. ...read more.


Weight is closely related to bone strength. In adults who are too fat, the bone density is high. If they are thin, the bone density is low. It is not advised to be overweight to obtain health bones, but it is important to avoid becoming too thin. Adults who lose weight lose bone density. Thin men and women are more likely to break bones when they are older. Boys and girls who are too thin will definitely have lower bone density. If they are too heavy, sometimes the bone density will be high. But if children are fat because they don't get any exercise, the bone density might be low and they might break their wrist more easily. Osteoporosis is the most known disease of bone, the amount of bone decreased and the strength of trabecular bone is reduced, cortical bone becomes thin and bones are susceptible to fracture. Osteoporosis is condition that features loss of the normal density of bone. Osteoporosis occurs most often in older people and in women after menopause. Rickets is another disease of the bone most people know about. It is an abnormal bone formation in children resulting from inadequate calcium in their bones. This lack of calcium can result from inadequate dietary calcium, inadequate exposure to sunshine (needed to make vitamin D), or from not eating enough vitamin D. Rickets is a failure to mineralize bone. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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