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Unit 5 P3: Outline the gross structure of all main body systems

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Introduction

´╗┐Jessica Bascombe P3: Outline the gross structure of all main body systems Digestive system: This is made up of the gastrointestinal tract also called the digestive system and the liver, pancreas and gall bladder. The gastrointestinal tract is a series of hollow organ that joined in a long twisting tube from mouth to the anus; the hollow organs made up the GI tract are the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine which includes the rectum and anus. Food enters the mouth and passes to the anus through the hollow organs of the GI tract the liver, pancreas and goal bladder are the solid organs of the digestive system. The digestive system helps the body digest food, this is important for breaking down food into nutrients which the body uses for energy growth and cell repair food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules from nutrients before the bloody absorbs them and carries them to the cells throughout the body, the body breaks down the nutrients from food and drink into carbohydrates, protein, fats and vitamins. Digestion works by moving food through the GI tract, digestion begins in the mouth with chewing and anus in the small intestine as food passes thought the GI tract it mixes with digestion juices, which causes the large molecules of food to break down into smaller molecules the body then absorbs these smaller molecules through the walls of the small intestines into the bloodstream which delivers them to the rest of the body. Waste products of digestion pass through the large intestine and out the body as a solid matter called stool/poo. The Teeth: Our teeth equip us for destroying chunks of food by a gamut of mechanical actions ranging from gripping and puncturing to grinding and pulverizing. The teeth in front canines and incisors do most of the gripping, ripping, and tearing, while the premolars and molars at the back of the jaws do the grinding The Tongue: The tongue is a muscular organ located ...read more.

Middle

The brain and spinal cord form the control centre known as the central nervous system where information is evaluated and decision made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the central nervous system. Efferent nerves in the peripheral nervous system carry signals from control centre to the muscles, glands and organs to regulate their functions. The majority of the nervous systems are tissue made up of 2 classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia. The Neurons: These are known as nerve cells, communicate within the body by transmitting electrochemical signals neurons look different from other cells in the body due to the many long cellar process that extend from their central cell body. The cell body is the roughly round part of a neuron that contains the nucleus, mitochonia and most of the cellular organelles. Small structures called dendrites extend from the cell body to pick up stimuli from the environment other neutrons or sensory receptor cells long transmitting processes called axons extend from the body to send signals onward to other neurons or effector cells in the body. Neuroglia: Are known as glial cells act as the helper cells of the nervous system each neuron in the body is surrounded by anywhere from 6 to 60 neuroglia that protect, feed and insulate the neuron because neuron are extremely specialised cells that are essential to the body function and almost never reproduce neuroglia are vital to maintaining a functional nervous system. The Brain: Has 3 functions * To receive and respond to information about a person?s environment * To coordinate and control physical functions such as breathing, hear rate, balance and movement * To make the individual self aware and able to think about others The brain is located in the skull it is a complex organ which acts as the control centre for nervous system and the body as a whole. ...read more.

Conclusion

It lies in the pelvic cavity behind the bladder and in front of the bowel. The Ovaries: The ovaries are a pair of oval or almond-shaped glands that lie on either side of the uterus and just below the opening to the fallopian tubes. In addition to producing eggs or ova, the ovaries produce female sex hormones called estrogen and progesterone. The female, unlike the male, does not manufacture the sex cells. The Vagina: The vagina is an elastic, muscular tube connecting the cervix of the uterus to the vulva and exterior of the body. The vagina is located in the pelvic body cavity posterior to the urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum. The Cervix: The cervix of uterus is the lower one-third of the uterus. It is the tubular cervix, which extends downward into the upper portion of the vagina. The cervix surrounds the opening called the cervical orifice, through which the uterus communicates with the vagina. Male Reproductive System: Includes the srcotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands and penis these organs work together to produce sperm the male gamete and the other components of semen these organs also work together to deliver semen out of the body and into the vagina where it can fertilize the egg cells to produce offspring. The Penis: This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glands, which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis the glands, also called the head of the penis, are covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. The Scrotum: This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum acts as a "climate control system" for the testes. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than body temperatures are the male reproductive organs that produce and store sperm cells and that manufacture the hormones testosterone. ...read more.

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