• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Unit 5 P3: Outline the gross structure of all main body systems

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Jessica Bascombe P3: Outline the gross structure of all main body systems Digestive system: This is made up of the gastrointestinal tract also called the digestive system and the liver, pancreas and gall bladder. The gastrointestinal tract is a series of hollow organ that joined in a long twisting tube from mouth to the anus; the hollow organs made up the GI tract are the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine which includes the rectum and anus. Food enters the mouth and passes to the anus through the hollow organs of the GI tract the liver, pancreas and goal bladder are the solid organs of the digestive system. The digestive system helps the body digest food, this is important for breaking down food into nutrients which the body uses for energy growth and cell repair food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules from nutrients before the bloody absorbs them and carries them to the cells throughout the body, the body breaks down the nutrients from food and drink into carbohydrates, protein, fats and vitamins. Digestion works by moving food through the GI tract, digestion begins in the mouth with chewing and anus in the small intestine as food passes thought the GI tract it mixes with digestion juices, which causes the large molecules of food to break down into smaller molecules the body then absorbs these smaller molecules through the walls of the small intestines into the bloodstream which delivers them to the rest of the body. Waste products of digestion pass through the large intestine and out the body as a solid matter called stool/poo. The Teeth: Our teeth equip us for destroying chunks of food by a gamut of mechanical actions ranging from gripping and puncturing to grinding and pulverizing. The teeth in front canines and incisors do most of the gripping, ripping, and tearing, while the premolars and molars at the back of the jaws do the grinding The Tongue: The tongue is a muscular organ located ...read more.


The brain and spinal cord form the control centre known as the central nervous system where information is evaluated and decision made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the central nervous system. Efferent nerves in the peripheral nervous system carry signals from control centre to the muscles, glands and organs to regulate their functions. The majority of the nervous systems are tissue made up of 2 classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia. The Neurons: These are known as nerve cells, communicate within the body by transmitting electrochemical signals neurons look different from other cells in the body due to the many long cellar process that extend from their central cell body. The cell body is the roughly round part of a neuron that contains the nucleus, mitochonia and most of the cellular organelles. Small structures called dendrites extend from the cell body to pick up stimuli from the environment other neutrons or sensory receptor cells long transmitting processes called axons extend from the body to send signals onward to other neurons or effector cells in the body. Neuroglia: Are known as glial cells act as the helper cells of the nervous system each neuron in the body is surrounded by anywhere from 6 to 60 neuroglia that protect, feed and insulate the neuron because neuron are extremely specialised cells that are essential to the body function and almost never reproduce neuroglia are vital to maintaining a functional nervous system. The Brain: Has 3 functions * To receive and respond to information about a person?s environment * To coordinate and control physical functions such as breathing, hear rate, balance and movement * To make the individual self aware and able to think about others The brain is located in the skull it is a complex organ which acts as the control centre for nervous system and the body as a whole. ...read more.


It lies in the pelvic cavity behind the bladder and in front of the bowel. The Ovaries: The ovaries are a pair of oval or almond-shaped glands that lie on either side of the uterus and just below the opening to the fallopian tubes. In addition to producing eggs or ova, the ovaries produce female sex hormones called estrogen and progesterone. The female, unlike the male, does not manufacture the sex cells. The Vagina: The vagina is an elastic, muscular tube connecting the cervix of the uterus to the vulva and exterior of the body. The vagina is located in the pelvic body cavity posterior to the urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum. The Cervix: The cervix of uterus is the lower one-third of the uterus. It is the tubular cervix, which extends downward into the upper portion of the vagina. The cervix surrounds the opening called the cervical orifice, through which the uterus communicates with the vagina. Male Reproductive System: Includes the srcotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands and penis these organs work together to produce sperm the male gamete and the other components of semen these organs also work together to deliver semen out of the body and into the vagina where it can fertilize the egg cells to produce offspring. The Penis: This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glands, which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis the glands, also called the head of the penis, are covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. The Scrotum: This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum acts as a "climate control system" for the testes. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than body temperatures are the male reproductive organs that produce and store sperm cells and that manufacture the hormones testosterone. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    P2: Describe the structure of the tissues of the body and their role in ...

    4 star(s)

    Discs are located in the vertebrae of the spine and they are formed by highly compressible fibro cartilage. As for elastic cartilage this is found where a structure needs elasticity. Areolar: The most spread tissue within the body is called the areolar.

  2. Describe the gross structure and functions of the main body systems. P3

    The respiratory system may be defined as the organs and tissues through which air is passed into and out of the body to allow the necessary gaseous exchanges to take place. Nervous system The nervous system made up of your brain, your spinal cord, and an enormous network of nerves

  1. The musculoskeletal systems functions are to support the bodys shape, to protect important organs, ...

    The muscle fibres contain alternating light and dark bands that are called striations and they are perpendicular to the long axes of the fibres. Cardiac muscle's contraction is usually not under conscious control, this means that it is involuntary. ´┐Ż smooth muscles (internal organs)

  2. P2 - Physiology of fluid balance

    As water is not able to diffuse through the membrane like fat soluble molecules are, the water filled channels in the phospholipid membrane allows water soluble substances to move through. The carrier proteins change shape according to the type of molecule which is diffusing through.

  1. I will discuss the structure and functions of the nervous system including the structure ...

    Nerves divide off many times as they leave the spinal cord so that they can reach all parts of the body, the thickest nerve is around an inch thick and the thinnest is thinner than a human hair. Each nerve is a bundle of neurons which is a nerve cell

  2. supporting adults

    Service users who live with their family may be subject to abuse by one or tow people in the family members. When service user's leaves in an isolated situation, they may be subject to a lack of financial abuse and privacy, for example their letters might be opened and their allowance and benefits may be taking way from them.

  1. Outline the structure of the main tissues of the body

    This means that inhaled particles that stick to the mucus are moved to the throat by the cilia. Cilia provide a large surface area for absorption of nutrients. This usually happens in the small intestines where nutrients are passed through.

  2. The respiratory system consists of tubes that filter incoming air and transport it into ...

    The larynx is composed of a framework of muscles and cartilage bound by elastic tissue. Inside the larynx, two pairs of folds of muscle and connective tissue covered with mucous membrane make up the vocal cords. During normal breathing, the vocal cords are relaxed.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work