• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

b) Why was there a revival of totalitarianism in Europe in the 1920s and 30s?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

a) What is meant by the term "totalitarianism"? b) Why was there a revival of totalitarianism in Europe in the 1920s and 30s? a) Totalitarianism was a one-party political system that was based on dictatorship. It first started in Europe in the 1920s and 30s. It was an absolutism that emphasized the importance of the state at the expense of individual liberties. It displays the following features: One-party dictatorship and one-man rule were emphasized in a totalitarian state. Only one party ruled in a totalitarian state, for example, the Fascist Part in Italy, the Nazi Party in Germany and the Communist Party in the Soviet Union. All other political parties were made illegal, banned and suppressed by terrorist acts. The party and the part leader had absolute control over the state. All citizens owed absolute obedience to the ruler, for example, Il Duce in Italy and Fuhrer in Germany. Opposition was suppressed. The totalitarian government can tolerate no opposition. All opposition parties, newspaper and opponents were suppressed by terrorist acts, persecution and secret police. ...read more.

Middle

b) After the First World War, there was a revival of totalitarianism in Europe: Fascism in Italy, Nazism in Germany and Communism in Russia. The revival of totalitarianism was due to post-war economic and social insecurity, post-war political problems, post-war nationalist discontent, post-war decline in religious faith, fear of communism and personal ability of the totalitarian leader. After the First World War, there were many social and economic problems in Europe. In Italy, there was inflation, unemployment and a decline in trade. The First World War had ruined Italian overseas trade and led to economic decline. The demobilization also led to the unemployment of the returned soldiers. The Italians suffered greatly from the First World War. Thus they began to support a strong leader who would promise social and economic security. In Germany, the heavy reparation had led to economic decline. There was serious inflation and unemployment. Unemployment was at its peak after the Great Depression of 1929. Ruhr was occupied by the French troops in 1923 to the miners' strike. Hence the Germans turned to support Hitler who promised economic recovery. ...read more.

Conclusion

The revival of totalitarianism was due to people's fear of communism. Post-war economic problems led to riots of workers and peasants in Italy and Germany who were influenced by the 1917 Revolution in Russia. The middle class feared of a communist takeover and hence supported Mussolini and Hitler who were anti-communist and promised economic security. Post-war decline in religious faith led to the revival of totalitarianism. After the First World War, people believed in physical strength and the domination of the strong over the weak, hence supported the dictatorial rule of totalitarianism, which adopted an expansionist foreign policy. The personal ability of the totalitarianism leaders drew wide support from the people. Mussolini and Hitler had good oratory skills to build a good image of their political parties. They also had good organization skills, such as the Blackshirts of Mussolini and the Brownshirts of Hitler. They were able to make alternative promises to gain support from different classes. Hence make the revival of totalitarianism in Europe in the 1920s and 30s inevitable. In short, the revival of totalitarianism in Europe in 1920s and 30s was due to a number of subjective and objective factors. The above reasons finally brought the revival of totalitarianism and hence brought Europe to the Second World War. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Why did tension increase in Europe between 1900 and 1914?

    * The Warsaw Pact was an attempt to protect the USSR by drawing the countries of eastern Europe closer together. * The Warsaw Pact lasted until the late 1980s, when it collapsed The Arms Race 1945 - US atomic bomb 1949 - Soviet atomic bomb 1952 - US hydrogen bomb

  2. Analyse the factors, which prompted the growth of Fascism in Italy by 1922.

    The squadristi also proved to be highly effective security guards for frightened businessmen and bankers, who rewarded their services with money for Fascist funds. Socialist activity continued to play into the hands of the Fascists when they called a general strike.

  1. Which of the following problems do you consider to have been the most serious ...

    The black population were treated as inferior and childlike. They would not get good jobs because of discrimination and the favouring of whites so they had to work for low wages and live in poverty. Blacks were seen as bad people who wanted to terrorise and harm others by some Americans.

  2. How Strong was Opposition to Continental Commitments in the 1920's

    The army was reduced to a small force obligated to the maintaining of home security and to policing the newly formed empire. Military spending was reduced from �692 million to �115 million within 2 years and did not rise again until 1935.

  1. Why was there such a considerable boom in the USA in the 1920s?

    To accompany the new growing industry of cars, ways had to be discovered to sell them to the public. For American's, the advertiser and the salesman became key figures in their newfound world of prosperity. The advertisers were quick to pick up on the medium of cinema, placing advertisements before films.

  2. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

    Q.1 Study SOURCE A. How can you tell that Bert Hall was unhappy about events at this time? Give two reasons. SOURCE B is by an historian writing in 1989. SOURCE B Chamberlain had to agree to Hitler's demands. The country was not ready for war.

  1. Why was there an economic boom in the 1920s?

    After Woodrow Willson died during his campaign to bring America into the league of nations, Warren Harding took over with the Republican party. The policies of Republican presidents - Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover changed the way that American business was run.

  2. Discuss the view that during the 1920s the British always put their imperial interests ...

    After the First World War, Britain's empire became larger and thus so did her imperial interests and the need for isolationism increased. With the treaty of Sevres that dealt with Turkey: Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq as well as Germany's colonies in Africa, were entrusted to Britain as 'mandates' by the League of Nations.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work