• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explain the importance of the President, in relation to other factors in the development of changes in foreign policy in the years 1940 to 1960

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Explain the importance of the President, in relation to other factors in the development of changes in foreign policy in the years 1940 to 1960 There are many factors leading to the development and change of foreign policy between the years 1940 and 1960. The personalities and actions of the Presidents at the time obviously had a major impact on these policies, but other factors also had an effect on changes to the foreign policy during the years 1940 to 1960. These other factors include the economic state of Europe, pressure from Congress and Stalin and the Cold War. Roosevelt, Truman and Eisenhower were the three Presidents in power between the years 1940-1960. Roosevelt's personality and views certainly affected the way foreign policy changed during these years. Roosevelt was a President with strong beliefs and he was not afraid to carry them out with or without the support of Congress. He was a man who was extremely self-confident, and his views had a major impact on the changes in foreign policy. We see this in his actions towards Britain and aid, more specifically the 'Lend-Lease' program. The US had been following a policy of neutrality but it was obvious Roosevelt's sympathies lay with Britain and France. ...read more.

Middle

However, the war with Japan seemed far from over. Truman decided to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki resulting in the Japanese Government surrendering and World War 2 to be ended, however moral or immoral the bombings were. These first actions of Truman showed his unsparing attitude from the start of his Presidency. Initially, we can see that the President's character was extraordinarily important in regards to changes in the foreign policy and the ending of the war. However, changes in the foreign policy which followed may not be linked to the President even though they happened under his name and can possibly be tagged to the increasing growth of Communism. The Truman Doctrine was delivered in a speech to Congress on 12th March 1947 and showed the US policy of containment and was delivered as a 'vow to defend the free democracies of Europe'. This was pretty much due to communist expansion as Greece was in the middle of a civil war with the opposite parties being royalist and communists. And Turkey shared a border with Russia. Although, Congress was initially against the idea of support with a strong belief of isolationism still in some parts, after the doctrine, they soon supported Truman and gave him the finances he needed. ...read more.

Conclusion

The final President to take Presidency in this period between 1940 and1960 was Eisenhower. Eisenhower's Presidency was seen to be a relative period of stability and no major changes to foreign policy happened apart from the 'New Look' on the inherited policy of Containment from Truman. It was principally the same policy and its objective was 'to prevent the further expansion of soviet communism outside of the areas where it was already established'. As a President, Eisenhower was not important in the development of changes in foreign policy in the years 1940 to 1960. His only significant change was his threat to use nuclear weapons. He threatened China with nuclear action in an attempt to ending the Korean War. In relation to the factor of Stalin's death and new negotiations from Khrushchev, Eisenhower did not play an important role in development of changes to US foreign policy as he did not help these US-Soviet relations get back on track. In conclusion, the importance of the President's in relation to other factors such as the state of Europe, the Communist threat and Stalin in the development of changes in foreign policy in the years 1940-1960 is insignificant and not important. These other factors contribute to the Presidents decision on changes to foreign policy and therefore they are more important. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Evaluate the presidency of Dwight Eisenhower.

    While the opinions of these sources are certainly worth taking into account, they cannot form the entire basis for a judgment that President Eisenhower allowed the central intelligence agency to get out of control. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., also fails to consider the significance of the U-2 spy plane.

  2. The Foreign Policy of the Lone Superpower

    Soon, however, it became apparent that this was too narrow a term because it di not include international broadcastin and the policy information (press attach´┐Ż) functions. By the late sixties, the broader term public diplomacy was accepted by more and more professionals."10 [italics added] And probably as a form of

  1. 3 presidents

    The second president was William Taft. He adopted the famous 'Dollar Diplomacy'. He, just like Roosevelt, had planned to have an ongoing interest in foreign affairs. He firmly believed that co operation would go a lot further than the immediate reaction equipped by humans to use force.

  2. Many peoples have contributed to the development of the United States of America, a ...

    On the other hand, southerners, a rural and widely dispersed people, feared the cities and the power of remote bankers. With Thomas JEFFERSON they worked to counteract the Federalists' anglicized vision of the United States. Southerners rejected the concept of an active government, preferring one committed to laissez-faire (that is, allowing people to act without government interference)

  1. In the past century American foreign policy has evolved with the world. Changes ...

    While this was occurring U.S. newspapers influenced the thoughts and opinions of Americans. Newspaper publishers such as William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer printed horrifying stories of "Butcher" Weyler and his barbed wire concentration camps. These often inaccurate and exaggerating reports became known as "yellow journalism," which caused the American public to favor the rebellion (Smolinski, pg6).

  2. American economic foreign policy and the origins of the cold war

    after 1939."2 Furthermore, lenient treatment of the countries that had started World War I was believed to have only resulted in further aggression. As a result, Americans were determined to "get the job right" this time around. President Roosevelt himself promised in a speech given in September 1942: "We have profited by our past mistakes.

  1. This graduation paper is about U.S. - Soviet relations in Cold War period. Our ...

    No mention was made of sharing information about the bomb, or of future cooperation to avoid an arms race. Yet the very nature of the new weapon proved a mixed blessing, making it as much a source of provocation as of diplomatic leverage.

  2. Superpower Relations 1945-90

    Khrushchev's policy in Eastern Europe angered the West 3. The U2 Incident Khrushchev tried to gain the advantage in the Cold War from the young and inexperienced President Kennedy by 4. Trying to force the West out of Berlin 5. Attempting to deploy Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba By 1963 it was clear that Kennedy had won the battle of wits.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work