• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Japan: Post-Occupation Era 1952-80

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Japan: Post-Occupation Era 1952-80 A. Political a. Inseparable????? U.S.-Japanese relations: Article 9 of the 1947 Constitution denies Japan the right of making and joining war. It was an American-dictated constitution. Yet, the American attitude changed in the early 1950s, owing to the growing leftist influence in Japan, the Communist takeover?? of mainland China and the outbreak of the Korean War. The U.S. was no longer worried about a revival?? of Japanese militarism, but considered Japan to be a partner of her containment strategy???? in the Far East against Communist China and the Soviet Union. In late 1951 the Treaty of San Francisco�?????�and the US-Japan Mutual Security Pact�??????� were signed. These treaties were ratified?? on 28th April 1952. The US-Japan Security Pact was to be renewed at 10-year intervals????. It becomes the cornerstone?? of Japan's foreign and defence policies. The Treaty of San Francisco restored full sovereignty?? and national independence to Japan. However, Japan's foreign and defence policies were heavily subjected??? to the U.S. direction. American troops can use military bases of Japan virtually without restriction. With American approval, a National Police Reserve Force????? consisting of 75,000 men was formed in Japan in 1950. In 1954 the Defence Agency??? was formed. The National Police Reserve changed to the Self-Defence Forces (SDF) ???. There were ground, maritime and air self-defence forces. The SDF organization, supplies and technological developments were dictated by Americans. The role up to the 1960s was to deal mainly with internal leftist subversion?? ...read more.

Middle

There was still no widespread questioning of social, religious and political authority??. Traditional virtues?? like loyalty and obedience still exists in many sectors of society. f. Life-long employment???? still prevailed?? in most enterprises. g. Pacifism???? prevails. Military men received low social esteem??. Their self-image was extremely low. Despite high salaries, the SDF usually found it hard to get enough recruits??. There were also usual legal disputes over whether or not the SDF is constitutional????, because Article 9 of the 1947 Constitution states clearly that "the Japanese people forever renounce?? war as a sovereign right of the nation ...... land, sea and air forces as well as other war potential will never be maintained. The right of belligerency??? of the state will not be recognized". C. Cultural a. The emperor-state orthodoxy???????????? was destroyed. The SCAP (Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers??????) had denied the divinity?? of the Emperor. The 1947 Constitution further reduces the Emperor to nothing more than a figurehead????. The myth??of the Emperor continued to decline. Though most Japanese still respect the Emperor and deem?? him one of the national essence??, yet the Emperor has no appeal at all to the younger generation. b. Fine art was marked by great creativity???. Moreover, Japanese cartoons, films and pop singers are very popular both at home and abroad. American influence is strong in influencing Japan's postwar cultural developments. c. Individualism????continued to be a conscious goal among students and younger Japanese. ...read more.

Conclusion

of China. The KMT and CCP?? governments relinquished??the claim to the reparations respectively. Though Taiwan was of great strategic (Taiwan is located on the oil supply route between Japan and Southeast Asian countries) and economic importance to Japan, yet the political influence of the huge, populous???? and nuclear-armed mainland China was never negligible??. Since the Sino-Soviet border clash?? at Zhenbaodao??? of 1969 the U.S. started to consider Communist China to be an important partner against the Soviet Union. In 1971 the People's Republic of China was admitted?? to the U.N. President Nixon??? even announced his official visit to Beijing. With American implicit approval??, Japan approached to Communist China. m. In 1973 the US returned Okinawa?? to Japan. Henceforth??, the issue of Diaoyutai???causes quarrels between Japan and the two regimes of China. n. Since 1964 Japan had became the dominant??? trade partner of all East Asia, and provided almost one-third of total foreign capital for the region, compared to 23% by the U.S. By 1973 Japanese economic aid?? to other countries came just next to the U.S. Japan played the leading role in the Asian Development Bank??????. o. However, by 1972 only 10% of all her aid consisted of genuine??? aid like grants??, technical assistance and contributions??. Most aid was tied to the procurement?? of Japanese goods and services. p. The ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations???????) was set up in 1967, but Japan did not value?? its importance until 1977. The ASEAN used to criticize Japan's insufficient and dishonest economic aid. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. The Sino-Soviet Split

    continue would be inconsistent with the image of national self-sufficiency that he was trying to create. Eventually, he interpreted Stalin's interest in Northern China as a sign of distrust and a "racist" desire to supervise domestic affairs. This realization prompted his famous explosion: 'You think Russians are superior and Chinese

  2. Analysis of Political Cartoons

    The loss of legitimacy and subsequent change in world opinion of America was due to a change from a multilateral to unilateral agenda when America declared its war on terror. America abandoned "successful forms of hegemonic governance, based on the institutionalization of collective economic and security regimes, in favor of

  1. In What Ways Were Britain's Imperial Policies Before 1952 Influenced By The Development Of ...

    The imperial policies pursued in the years up to 1952 were intended to prevent further erosion of her great power status and reverse the nation's decline. The Middle East and East Mediterranean were areas of vital British interest due to Soviet power being much closer and Soviet influence more likely

  2. The month of August in the year of 1991 marked the beginning of a ...

    Some disagree with this theory, rejecting Huntington's notions, arguing that common culture will not be a cohesive tie. They state that many cultures have too many differences and hatreds amongst each other that they would never come together, at least in the near future (Cromartie 41).

  1. A Study of Air Supremacy in the Korean War.

    Team at Sukchon and Sunchon, North Korea.17 The C-119s also air dropped heavy equipment such as howitzers, trucks, and jeeps. Pyongyang fell that day. During this operation there were many friendly casualties which had to be airlifted out. The lighter of the planes, such as the C-47 and C-46s, could

  2. Superpower Relations 1945-90

    * In 1945 there were 12m Soviet soldiers in Eastern Europe. * Despite the Yalta Declaration, Stalin used cunning methods to make sure that communist governments took control of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria and Albania. In some places, elections were rigged, in others non-communists were overthrown and replaced with communists loyal to Stalin.

  1. The Prelude to the 1975 War and the Cairo Agreement.

    His ill-conceived move hastened the disintegration of the army and confirmed Syria's suspicion of Palestinian involvement in this show of force. Indeed, if Abu Jihad was the man behind Khatib, Abu Hassan Salameh, Arafat's close associate, was behind Ahdab. According to Abu Iyad, Ahdab was supplied with a Fateh escort to the television building where he announced the 'coup'.

  2. Discussing Japan.

    You only have to look at it's technology to find this out. Japan has lots of very big problems especially land and space. It is quite big at 378,000 square kilometres but is has a massive population too at 122.61 million people.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work