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Maslow and Social Services

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This essay will describe Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. It will explore how these different needs are met by Social Services whilst clarifying the distinction between 'wants' and 'needs'. In doing so, it will define 'social services' in its widest sense, including facilities available from the voluntary sector and, on a more informal basis, from family and friends. The Hierarchy of Needs model was developed by Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist. Maslow (1943) publicly set out his ideology for the first time within an article written for the Psychological Review journal. The basis of Maslow's theory was that individuals, as human beings, are motivated by unsatisfied needs. He stated that people can only strive toward self-actualisation once their more basal needs are fulfilled. Maslow's model (shown below) groups human needs into five different levels, forming a pyramid of progression, with the most basic needs at the bottom. Self-Actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (Abraham Maslow - Father of Modern Management, 2007) As illustrated above, the first level is concerned with physiological needs. These are the resources required for basic survival, including air, water, food and sleep. Once physiological needs are met, Maslow's model indicates that focus turns to safety and security. These needs are concerned with emotional security as well as physical safety and include a safe living environment, job security, financial reserves and insurance. ...read more.


As Directgov (2008) sets out, the Government can provide assistance in many forms to those who are unable to meet their physiological needs through private income such as employment or investments. The full range of available benefits are too numerous to list within this essay but include Income Support, Jobseekers Allowance, Incapacity Benefit, Working Tax Credits, Housing Benefit, Council Tax Benefit and Disability Living Allowance for those of working age. For households containing a child or children, Child Benefit may also be available. Meanwhile, for those of retirement age, a State Pension and Pension Credits may be payable. Some of the aforementioned benefits also address the satisfaction of safety needs. Having a place to live (or not) has massive impact on feelings of safety and emotional well-being. Not only does a house provide physical protection from cold and wet weather, it also provides emotional refuge from the outside world; home is a place where people can feel safe and relax. In addition to local authority housing, there exists a variety of facilities available for those who would otherwise be sleeping rough. The provision of hostels and temporary accommodation, run by charitable organisations, local authorities or private businesses, means that the number of people being forced to sleep rough is kept as low as possible. To quote Communities and Local Government (2008): "We estimate that, as at June 2008, there were 483 people sleeping rough in England on any single night." ...read more.


Consequently, the aim should be to bolster this supportive network and make it the very best it can be. Just like people, social services must continue to strive to fulfil its potential. Reference List Abraham Maslow - Father of Modern Management (2007) Available from: http://www.abraham-maslow.com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs.asp [Accessed: 4 October 2008]. Age Concern Kingston upon Thames (2008) Social Activities [online]. Available from: http://www.ageconcernkingston.org/whatwedo_socialactivities.htm [Accessed: 5 October 2008]. BBC News Online (2004) Homeless Face More Violent Crime [online]. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4099727.stm [Accessed: 5 October 2008]. Borough of Poole (2008) Gateway Team [online]. Available from: http://www.boroughofpoole.com/adult_social_care/services/ref:S471F3DCEE1DB0/aka:Gateway+Team/ [Accessed: 5 October 2008]. Communities and Local Government (2008) Rough Sleeping Statistics [online]. Available from: http://www.communities.gov.uk/housing/homelessness/publicationsabouthomelessness/roughsleepingstatistics/ [Accessed: 5 October 2008]. Directgov (2008) Benefits and Financial Support [online]. Available from: http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/MoneyTaxAndBenefits/BenefitsTaxCreditsAndOtherSupport/index.htm [Accessed: 4 October 2008]. Maslow, A. H. (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. Available from: <http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm> [Accessed: 29 September 2008]. McKeown, C. and Summers, E. eds. (2006) Collins Gem English Dictionary. 14th ed. Glasgow, HarperCollins Publishers. Moonie, N. ed. (2000) Advanced Health and Social Care. 3rd ed. Oxford, Heinemann Educational Publishers. Office for National Statistics (2003) Percentage of the Population of Working Age Claiming A Key Social Security Benefit [online]. Available from: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/STATBASE/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=7753 [Accessed: 4 October 2008]. Skills for Care NMDS-SC (2007) Type of Care Services Provided [online]. Available from: http://www.nmds-sc-online.org.uk/help/Article.aspx?id=30 [Accessed: 29 September 2008]. TimeBank (2008) Benefits of Volunteering and Voluntary Work [online]. Available from: http://www.timebank.org.uk/aboutgiving/benefits_vol.htm [Accessed: 5 October 2008]. Barry Fotheringham - October 2008 1 ...read more.

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