• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5
6. 6
6
7. 7
7
8. 8
8
9. 9
9
10. 10
10
11. 11
11
12. 12
12
13. 13
13
14. 14
14
15. 15
15
16. 16
16
17. 17
17
18. 18
18

# Aim: To determine how the concentration of each species in a reaction affects the rate of reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Aim: To determine how the concentration of each species in a reaction affects the rate of reaction Plan Introduction In this coursework, the rate of reaction between two reactants will be investigated. Rate of reaction can be defined as the time during which a reactant is lost or a product forms during a chemical reaction. This is calculated by dividing the value of concentration by the time in seconds. There are factors other than concentration that affect the reaction rate, which are temperature, surface area and a catalyst. However, the effect of concentration is the only factor being investigated, meaning that the other factors need to remain constant, and in the absence of any catalyst. Theory Increasing the concentration of a solution increases the reaction rate. This is because there are more particles in the solution, making molecular collisions more likely. Therefore, more collisions between particles take place. The reaction that will be examined in order to fulfil the aim is the reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid: 2HCl(aq) + Na2S2O3(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O(l) The experiment is carried out by constructing a large cross on a piece of paper, and placing this beneath the reaction mixture. Hydrochloric acid is then mixed together with sodium thiosulphate. The concentration of one of the reactants would change, while the other remains constant, to determine exactly how the concentration affects the rate of reaction. As soon as the two reactants are mixed together, a stopwatch would be started and be stopped as soon as the cross is no longer visible (becomes opaque). This time recorded represents the time taken for the cross to disappear. As both the concentration and reaction time are known, the rate of reaction can be calculated by dividing the concentration by the reaction time. This is achieved by constructing a concentration - time graph, where the gradient at the different concentrations represents the rate of reaction at those concentrations. ...read more.

Middle

This enables accurate results to be produced, and both an accurate and reliable conclusion to be drawn. The following methods are going to be used in order to ensure a fair test: * Using only one variable per test e.g. changing the concentration of sodium thiosulphate but keeping the concentration of hydrochloric acid constant - this enables an accurate conclusion to be drawn * Glassware containing the solution will be washed both before use and after measurements - this ensures that results do not become damaged by eliminating ions from the previous trials * Three trials will be undertaken for each mixture - this enables an accurate average time to be calculated, which reduces the effect of any anomalous results * Using separate glassware for different reactants - this ensures that the reactants aren't mistakenly mixed together which would produce flawed results * Resetting the stopwatch after each use - prevents accidentally writing down the incorrect time after the cross disappears * Keeping the total volume of the solution at 75cm3 as different volumes could produce different results * Starting the stopwatch as soon as the reactants are in the beaker Producing different concentrations In order to determine how each species affects the reaction rate, the concentration of each species needs to be changed, making this a variable. This is achieved by altering the volume of each reactant. However, to accurately determine the effects of concentration, only one reactant can be a variable at a time. By not doing this, the concentrations of both Na2S2O3 and HCl are variables, then their effects can not be determined, as it becomes difficult to distinguish between the two variables. Therefore, in the experiments, the following concentrations will be used, by use of the following volumes: Experiment 1 Total volume = 75 cm3 In Experiment 1, the concentration of Na2S2O3 is constant, while the concentration of HCl is the independent variable. Starting concentration of HCl = 2 mol dm-3 Concentration of HCl (mol dm-3) Volume of HCl (cm3) ...read more.

Conclusion

one person would be in charge of determining when the cross disappears Foreign ions damaging the results One person would be in charge of washing apparatus after use Temperature could have affected the results as it is not controlled Carry out all of the experiments on the same day to ensure constant conditions i.e. room temperature Errors in measurement Errors in measurement Modification to method Producing accurate and correct times from the stopwatch Ensure that the stopwatch functions properly, reset the stopwatch before use, slowly copy the time on the stopwatch after the reaction is complete and then compare the time written down with the time on the stopwatch Using accurate volumes of the reactants Slowly measure the amount of reactant that is required, take the meniscus into account as the starting point, crouch down for a view from table level to ensure the correct volume and ensure this is poured directly into the reaction beaker and not onto the sides of the beaker The main source of error in my investigation was obviously measuring the time taken for the cross to disappear. I found it difficult trying to start the stopwatch immediately after the reactants were mixed. Also, it was surprisingly a challenge to determine when the cross had completely disappeared as in some cases a small part of the cross was still visible from some angles. Although I feel that measurements taken have been quite accurate, these factors clearly affected the accuracy of my results. In order to reduce the effect of all these errors, I would do the following if repeating this experiment: * Have five trials instead of three - in order to produce more accurate average times * Use different beakers for the reaction mixture if there was a greater amount of equipment available - in order to avoid effect of foreign ions * Extensive cleaning of apparatus before use - the apparatus could have been contaminated before use which would produce inaccurate results ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

1. ## Experiment to Determine Acidities of Wine. The purpose of this experiment is to ...

5 star(s)

In order to calculate the volatile acidity of the wine, this value is subtracted from the value calculated for the total acidity in part one of the experiment. Procedure Chemicals * Oxalic Acid * Sodium Hydroxide * 3 white wines from different regions * Deionised Water * Phenolphthalein Indicator Apparatus

2. ## Experiment to determine the order of the reaction of Iodine with Acetone by using ...

Moreover, ice cubes were added to the reaction mixture to lower the temperature and concentration, thus minimize the reaction rate. The volume of NaHCO3 added is unimportant. It should only be added in excess in order to remove all the catalyst H2SO4.

1. ## The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

It is prepared by the reaction of salicylic acid with acid anhydride to produce acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid. The reaction is known as a nucleophilic addition reaction followed by elimination. The salicylic acid acts as a nucleophile, and the lone pair of electrons on the -OH group attack the carboxyl carbon atoms of acid anhydride.

2. ## The aim of this experiment is to investigate the enthalpy change of combustion for ...

The same trend was seen however my values differed quite a lot from that of the ones in the book. This could have been due to the following reasons; Heat was still being lost into the surrounding and was not being recorded.

1. ## The aim of this experiment is to obtain the rate equation for the reaction ...

Test tube Volume of 0.020M I2 solution /cm3 Volume of distilled water /cm3 [I2(aq)] / mol dm-3 1 0.0 10.0 0 2 1.0 9.0 0.0020 3 2.0 8.0 0.0040 4 3.0 7.0 0.0060 5 4.0 6.0 0.0080 6 5.0 5.0 0.010 4.

2. ## F336- aspirin individual Investigation

and extract the crystalline solid. Decision I have chosen to synthesise aspirin using method 2. I have chosen this method because: 1) It is less complicated that method 1 and involves measuring out less chemical so the chance of error (human and /or equipment)

1. ## investigating the amount of ascorbic acid present in fruit

Pestle and Mortar To grind the sample of fruit. Electronic Balance To weigh out accurately 10g of ascorbic acid and 4g of KI to make out my solutions. Glass Stirring Rod To stir the mixture of KI, soluble starch and ascorbic acid together with distilled water.

2. ## Buffer enzymes. The aim of the experiment was to identify the affects of ...

Test tubes were placed on a rack and labeled pH2, pH4, pH7 and pH9 as this was the pH of the buffer solutions. In each test tube 3ml of yeast was added to each one using a pipette.

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to