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An Investigation on the affect of temperature on the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

An Investigation on the affect of temperature on the rate of reaction Aim: The aim of this investigation is to determine how varying temperatures affect the rate of reaction. Hypothesis: I predict that the higher temperature gets the faster the rate of reaction. However, as catalase is an enzyme found in the human body as well, beyond 40oC the enzyme will be denatured. Enzymes are protein molecules that are specific in recognising and binding to specific reactants known as substrates. Enzymes speed their conversion into products. These proteins are responsible for increasing the rates of all of the many thousand of reaction taking place inside cells. A number of external factors affect the activity of enzymes and the rate of these catabolic or anabolic reactions. These factors include variations in the concentration for substrate molecules, enzyme concentration, presence of inhibitors and pH. Catalase is an enzyme found in many things such as peas, potatoes and the liver. It is used for removing Hydrogen Peroxide from the cells. Catalase speeds up the decomposition (catabolic reaction) of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen. It is able to do this due to the shape of the Hydrogen Peroxide molecule and its own active site. Substrate + enzyme Products + enzyme Hydrogen peroxide + Catalase Water + Oxygen + Catalase 2H2O2 (l) + Catalase 2H2O (l) ...read more.

Middle

Set the apparatus accordingly: 2. Place 3 boiled peas in test-tube half-filled with distilled water, in another test tube place 3 unboiled peas in the same way. 3. Place these test tubes in the water bath of the required and set temperature, in this case 30oC, for a minimum of 15 minutes to allow the peas to form an equilibrium with the temperature in the water bath. 4. After the peas have equalised in temperature, they can be removed from the test-tube and the coat can be removed. 5. Crush the peas in the pestle and mortar to increase surface area for the reaction. Then place in the conical flask. 6. Get the stopwatch ready and pour 10cm3 of Hydrogen Peroxide into the conical flask and quickly replace the bung. The stopwatch should immediately be started as soon as the substrate is poured in. 7. Record the volume of gas collected every 30 secs for a total duration of 5 minutes. 8. This method should be repeated 3 times for each temperature. Apparatus: * Conical flask * Pipette * Gas syringe * Thermometer * Water baths * Ice * Peas * Pestle and mortar * Scalpel * Distilled water * Hydrogen Peroxide * Stopwatch Safety: * wash hands after using chemicals * wear goggles at all time during experiment Variables: 1) ...read more.

Conclusion

However, an anomaly can be detected from fig 1.2 which describes the overall trend of rate or reaction. At 200C the total volume of oxygen gas collected decreases from 20.3cm3 at 100C to 18.8cm3. This anomaly could be due the results being obtained from different groups, thus difference in equipment use and procedure may have produced this variation. Moreover, this result could be due to the fact that a controlled electronic water-bath was not used for this particular temperature, thus the temperature was not constantly maintained during the course of the reaction. Moreover, perhaps shaking or stirring the flask around would allow each enzyme and substrate to bind equally or fairly which would lead to more accurate results. To improve the investigation, temperatures below 00C should also have been investigated, as there was oxygen production even at this temperature. Moreover, more specific temperatures should be investigated such as 300C, 320C, 340C, 360C, 380C etc to gain a specific ideal that suits the enzyme and thus causes an increased rate of reaction. Moreover, perhaps shaking or stirring the flask around would allow each enzyme and substrate to bind equally or fairly which would lead to more accurate results. The investigation could also be extended to combine other factors affecting the rate of reaction such as pH, enzyme concentration, presence of inhibitors, or substrate concentration. Ambreen N.Khan 12T6 1 ...read more.

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