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Application of enzymes in industry and medicine.

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Introduction

Application of enzymes in industry and medicine. Enzymes have enormous potential in the commercial world. Since they can catalyse specific reactions at relatively low temperatures, they are more versitale and cheaper than inorganic cataylstys. Enzymes can work out a range of Ph levels and normal atmospheric pressure therefore energy saving. Enzymes are biogradable and therefore cause less environmental pollution. Enzymes are formed from within the cells of all living creatures, plantsm fungi, bacteria and microscopic single celled orgainisims. They are produced commercially by fermentaion under aseptic conditions. The nutrient is converted to the desired enzyme by carefully selected micro orgainism choice and type of conditions to yield the type of enzyme. Enzymes are used in a wide range of industries, including the food industry, textiles, argricultrial forestry, medical and the brewing industry. Baking Enzymes are very important in the baking process. The main function of enzymes in baking is to convert starch into fermentable sugars. The carbon dioxide produced from yeast fermentation of these sugars gives bread its fluffy texture. ...read more.

Middle

During conditioning proteases, most commonly papain are added to prevent the formation of chill haze, a carbohydrate complex. Papain causes the beers faming and head rention. Glucoamylasecan also be added resulting in maximum alcohol content and a sweeter beer. Food industry Lipases have a tremendous advantage in the food industry, however the biggesty problem is their high cost. Lipases are priciply usd in the dairy imdustry for the enhancement of flavour and ripening of cheese. Free fatty acids in cheeses, particualary soft cheeses give them their charcteristic flavours and smells. Blue cheeses are ripened by extracelluar lipases from mould, eg penicillium roqueforti. Leather industry Enzymes are used to remove the hairs from the animal skins to produce leather. A protease enzyme is used,eg trypsin, which partly digests keratin, the main protein present in hair, allowing the hair to vbe more gently removed.Protein digesting enzymes extraxted fro the pancreas of animals are used to diffuse into the skin and break down the proteins around the hair follicles. ...read more.

Conclusion

An enzyme called Phytase is used which releases phosphate and phyate. Treatment of animal feeds with phyate has shown to increase the levels of phosphate, thefore reduce the amount of inorganic, unenvironmental;ly friendly phosphate that has to be added to the feed. Phosphate has to be added to the feed for animals, such as pigs, with single stomachs, therefore low phosphate availability. Medicine Enzymes are tremendously useful in medicine, aswell as being advantageous for industirial processes and the commercial world. Most genetic diseases are a result of a particular enzyme deficiency. Therfore enzymes can be used in the diagnosis of disease, and therefore correct certain illnesses.The presence of enzymes where they shouldn't be , is vital for diagnosing a disease. For example when the liver is diseased or damaged, enzymes only usually found in the liver leak into the bloodstream. Testing the blood for these activities is therefore vital for confirming liver damage. Enzymes in medicine are also used in analytical tests. For example glucose is measured by an enzyme based test utilising glucose oxidase. Biosensers are used which analyse biologically active compounds in solutions. Biosensors are tremendously useful, in measuring blood levels. Sophie Parslow 28/04/07 ...read more.

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