• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Esters investigation.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Esters Esters are compounds formed from the reaction between alcohols and acids. Esters are usually derived from carboxylic acids A carboxylic acid contains the -COOH group, and in an ester, the hydrogen in this group is replaced by a hydrocarbon group of some kind. This could be an alkyl group like methyl or ethyl, or one containing a benzene ring like phenyl. Example of esters: ATP, it is a phosphate ester. Fats and oils. Fats and oils are tri-esters of glycerol, propane 1, 2, 3 triol, with carboxylic acids Glycerol Fats usually come from land animals e.g. butter. Oils usually come from marine animals and from the vegetable kingdom e.g. sunflower oil. The difference between a fat and oil is simply in the melting points of the mixture of esters they contain. If the melting points are below room temperature, it will be a liquid - oil. If the melting points are above room temperature, it will be a solid - a fat. The lower melting temperature oils tend to replace fats in marine animals e.g. ...read more.

Middle

Saturated fat The hydrocarbon chains are, of course in constant motion in the liquid, but it is possible for them to lie tidily when the substance solidifies. If the chains in one molecule can lie tidily, that means that neighboring molecules can get close. This increases the attractions between one molecule and its neighbors and so increases the melting point. The problem of packing of molecules in unsaturated fats which makes them have a low malting temperature There isn't any rotation about a carbon - carbon double bond and so that locks a permanent kink into the chain. That makes packing molecules close together more difficult. If they don't pack so well, the wander Waals forces won't work as well. This effect is much worse for molecules where the hydrocarbon chains either end where the hydrocarbon chains are arranged Cis to each other, which means, both of them on the same side of the double bond. In Trans form, the two hydrocarbon groups are on opposite sides of the carbon - carbon double bond. ...read more.

Conclusion

Lubricating oils and essential oils Lubricating oils are based on the products of vacuum distillation of the higher boiling fractions from petroleum. They are not esters. Essential oils strongly smell and volatile oils derived from plants. * They are derived from the molecule C10H16, limonene, which is an essential oil derived from lemon grass * They are called terpenes due to their relationship with limonene. * They can be aldehydes, alcohols, or ketones. * Most of them are now synthetic. You should realize that the volatility and odor of alcohols can be varied by esterification often with ethanoic acid Soaps Saponification: making of soaps by the alkaline hydrolysis of fats and oils the alkali usually used is sodium hydroxide. Other alkali's like: * Potassium hydroxide: is used in making toilet soaps * Lithium hydroxide: is not suitable * Other lithium salts: are used in greases for automobiles. 1- The soap is precipitated from the mixture by saturating the solution with common salt. 2- After washing out excess alkali, crude soap is mixed with glycerol to soften it 3- It is then colored and perfumed. Thank you :) ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Inorganic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Inorganic Chemistry essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Determining the concentration of acid in a given solution

    5 star(s)

    The solution turned from pale yellow to a pale peachy, pink colour. I didn't want to add too much indicator as the indicator can make the solution ore acidic. If I added too much indicator to try to make the endpoint clearer, then less acid would be needed to neutralise

  2. Peer reviewed

    Deducing the quantity of acid in a solution

    5 star(s)

    Also, it can hold solutions of corrosive chemicals, as they are made of Teflon (a material used to coat cooking utensils and in industrial applications where sticking is to be avoided10) or other materials resistant to corrosion.11 * Mixing rod: A mixing rod is used to mix the solution and to ensure that the entire solid (in this case, Na2CO3)

  1. effects Concentration and Temperature on the Rate of Reaction

    Gives off irritating or toxic gases in a fire. No contact with flammable substances. No contact with combustibles. No water. In case of fire in the surroundings: powder, foam, carbon dioxide. Explosion Risk of fire and explosion on contact with bases, combustible substances, oxidants. n/a In case of fire: keep drums etc.

  2. Finding Out how much Acid there is in a Solution

    + Na2CO3 (aq) --> Na2SO4 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l) As there is a 1:1 ratio between the moles of sulphuric acid used and the moles of sodium carbonate used, I can conclude that 2.5x10-3 moles of sulphuric acid are used per titration.

  1. DETERMINING THE MASS OF LITHIUM

    with lithium, the oxygen added to the mass of the lithium weighed thereby making lithium weigh more than it actually is. To improve this, the weighing out the lithium and reacting lithium with water should be done in an inert cubicle.

  2. Determination of the solubility of calcium hydroxide

    As I reach the end point of the expected value of the titre, I will start to add small drops of the hydrochloric acid to the calcium hydroxide, in the conical flask. Method 1. Firstly I will pour a small amount of the dilute hydrochloric acid solution into the burette

  1. The Effects of Strong and Weak Acids on the Order of a Reaction.

    It is wrong to say, however, that the catalyst lowers the activation energy of a reaction. The definition of a catalyst is a substance which provides an alternate route for the reaction with a lower activation energy and can be used in a reaction without getting used up, itself.

  2. Plan to investigate the transition temperature of salt hydrates

    The name of this molecule would be Copper Sulphate Pentahydrate, so to name a salt hydrate, you first write the salt, followed by the prefix which is linked to the number (mono-1, di-2, tri-3?) followed by hydrate. Transition temperatures are defined as either the change of one crystalline state into another.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work